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An international collaborative study to determine the prevalence of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia by monoclonal antibody-based cELISA

Armelle Peyraud12, François Poumarat34, Florence Tardy34, Lucía Manso-Silván12, Karomatullo Hamroev5, Tillo Tilloev5, Mullojon Amirbekov5, Karim Tounkara6, Charles Bodjo6, Hezron Wesonga7, Isabel Gacheri Nkando7, Shiferaw Jenberie8, Martha Yami8, Eric Cardinale9, Deodass Meenowa10, Mahmad Reshad Jaumally10, Tahir Yaqub11, Muhammad Zubair Shabbir11, Nadia Mukhtar11, Mohibullah Halimi12, Ghulam Mohammad Ziay12, Willy Schauwers13, Hafizullah Noori14, Ali Madad Rajabi14, Stéphane Ostrowski15 and François Thiaucourt12*

Author Affiliations

1 Centre de coopération internationale en recherche agronomique pour le développement (CIRAD) UMR CMAEE, Montpellier F-34398, France

2 INRA, UMR1309 CMAEE, Montpellier F-34398, France

3 ANSES, Laboratoire de Lyon, UMR Mycoplasmoses des Ruminants, 31 Avenue Tony Garnier, Cedex 07, Lyon F-69364, France

4 Université de Lyon, VetAgro, 1 av Bourgelat Marcy l”étoile, Lyon 69280, France

5 State Veterinary Inspection Services, Ministry of Agriculture, Rudaki Av 44, Dushanbe 734025, Tajikistan

6 Pan African Veterinary Vaccine Center (AU-PANVAC), P.O. Box 1746, Debre-Zeit, Ethiopia

7 Kenya Agricultural Research Institute (KARI), Veterinary Research Centre, KARI Muguga North, P.O. Box 32–00902, Kikuyu, Kenya

8 National Veterinary Institute, P.O. Box 19, Debre-Zeit, Ethiopia

9 CIRAD UMR CMAEE, Centre de Recherche et de Veille de l”Océan Indien, Sainte-Clotilde 97491 Réunion, France

10 Ministère de l”Agriculture, de la technologie alimentaire et des ressources naturelles, A. de Plevitz street Long Mountain Réduit, Maurice, France

11 Quality Operations Laboratory, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore 54600, Pakistan

12 Animal Health and Production, Ministry of Agriculture, Jamal Mina, Kabul, Afghanistan

13 Animal Health and Development Program, Phase II (EU project), Ministry of Agriculture, Jamal Mina, Kabul, Afghanistan

14 Wildlife Conservation Society, Afghanistan Program, Kabul, Afghanistan

15 Wildlife Conservation Society, New York, USA

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BMC Veterinary Research 2014, 10:48  doi:10.1186/1746-6148-10-48

Published: 24 February 2014



Few serological tests are available for detecting antibodies against Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae, the causal agent of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP). The complement fixation test, the test prescribed for international trade purposes, uses a crude antigen that cross-reacts with all the other mycoplasma species of the “mycoides cluster” frequently infecting goat herds. The lack of a more specific test has been a real obstacle to the evaluation of the prevalence and economic impact of CCPP worldwide. A new competitive ELISA kit for CCPP, based on a previous blocking ELISA, was formatted at CIRAD and used to evaluate the prevalence of CCPP in some regions of Kenya, Ethiopia, Mauritius, Tajikistan and Pakistan in an international collaborative study.


The strict specificity of the test was confirmed in CCPP-free goat herds exposed to other mycoplasma species of the “mycoides cluster”. Prevalence studies were performed across the enzootic range of the disease in Africa and Asia. Seroprevalence was estimated at 14.6% in the Afar region of Ethiopia, whereas all the herds presented for CCPP vaccination in Kenya tested positive (individual seroprevalence varied from 6 to 90% within each herd). In Mauritius, where CCPP emerged in 2009, nine of 62 herds tested positive. In Central Asia, where the disease was confirmed only recently, no positive animals were detected in the Wakhan District of Afghanistan or across the border in neighboring areas of Tajikistan, whereas seroprevalence varied between 2.7% and 44.2% in the other districts investigated and in northern Pakistan. The test was also used to monitor seroconversion in vaccinated animals.


This newly formatted CCPP cELISA kit has retained the high specificity of the original kit. It can therefore be used to evaluate the prevalence of CCPP in countries or regions without vaccination programs. It could also be used to monitor the efficacy of vaccination campaigns as high-quality vaccines induce high rates of seroconversion.

Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia; Competitive ELISA; Seroprevalence; Kenya; Ethiopia; Mauritius; Tajikistan; Afghanistan; Pakistan; Vaccine quality control