Table 5

Associations of demographic characteristics with 12-month DSM-IV/CIDI major depressive episode in low- to middle-income countries: bivariate analyses)a

Total, OR (95% CI)

Brazil, OR (95% CI)

Colombia, OR (95% CI)

India, OR (95% CI)

Lebanon, OR (95% CI)

Mexico, OR (95% CI)

China, OR (95% CI)

South Africa, OR (95% CI)

Ukraine, OR (95% CI)


Gender

Women

2.1 (1.8 to 2.3)*

2.6 (1.9 to 3.5)*

1.9 (1.4 to 2.7)*

1.9 (1.3 to 2.7)*

2.1 (1.3 to 3.4)*

2.1 (1.5 to 2.9)*

1.2 (0.8 to 1.7)

2.2 (1.5 to 3.2)*

2.5 (2.0 to 3.0)*

Men

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

Age

18-34

0.9 (0.8 to 1.1)

3.0 (1.6 to 5.7)*

4.9 (0.9 to 28.3)

0.4 (0.2 to 1.0)*

1.7 (0.8 to 3.7)

0.4 (0.2 to 1.2)

2.8 (0.8 to 9.4)

1.3 (0.6 to 2.6)

0.4 (0.3 to 0.6)*

35-49

1.0 (0.8 to 1.2)

3.3 (1.7 to 6.5)*

3.9 (0.7 to 23.1)

1.2 (0.6 to 2.5)

2.2 (1.0 to 5.2)

0.5 (0.2 to 1.3)

1.6 (0.5 to 5.3)

1.6 (0.8 to 3.2)

0.5 (0.3 to 0.7)*

50-64

1.0 (0.8 to 1.3)

2.5 (1.4 to 4.5)*

3.4 (0.6 to 20.1)

1.5 (0.7 to 3.2)

1.9 (0.9 to 4.1)

0.5 (0.2 to 1.5)

0.8 (0.2 to 3.3)

1.7 (0.8 to 3.6)

0.7 (0.5 to 1.1)

65+

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

Marital statusb

Separated

1.7 (1.3 to 2.2)*

1.6 (1.1 to 2.3)*

0.9 (0.6 to 1.6)

8.2 (2.2 to 30.6)*

19.3 (5.0 to 74.4)*

1.9 (1.0 to 3.6)*

-

2.7 (0.7 to 9.6)

6.6 (1.1 to 38.0)*

Divorced

3.0 (2.4 to 3.9)*

3.0 (1.9 to 4.9)*

1.2 (0.3 to 4.3)

-

0.8 (0.2 to 4.2)

1.2 (0.4 to 3.8)

6.2 (2.2 to 17.3)*

2.1 (1.3 to 3.5)*

4.2 (2.9 to 6.2)*

Widowed

2.7 (2.2 to 3.2)*

1.1 (0.7 to 1.9)

1.6 (0.9 to 2.9)

2.2 (1.5 to 3.2)*

1.4 (0.6 to 3.6)

2.7 (1.5 to 5.0)*

4.1 (0.8 to 20.7)

2.3 (1.3 to 4.0)*

8.0 (5.3 to 12.0)*

Never married

1.0 (0.9 to 1.1)

1.0 (0.7 to 1.3)

1.3 (0.9 to 1.8)

0.3 (0.1 to 0.6)*

1.3 (0.8 to 2.0)

0.8 (0.5 to 1.3)

1.4 (1.0 to 1.9)

0.7 (0.5 to 1.0)*

0.8 (0.5 to 1.3)

Currently married

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

Living arrangements

Alone

1.6 (1.4 to 1.9)*

1.3 (0.8 to 2.0)

0.6 (0.3 to 1.2)

1.2 (0.6 to 2.5)

1.3 (0.7 to 2.5)

1.0 (0.5 to 1.9)

1.6 (1.1 to 2.3)*

1.2 (0.8 to 1.9)

2.5 (1.9 to 3.3)*

With others

1.2 (1.1 to 1.3)*

1.2 (1.0 to 1.5)

1.3 (0.9 to 1.8)

0.6 (0.4 to 0.9)*

1.4 (0.8 to 2.2)

1.1 (0.8 to 1.6)

0.9 (0.4 to 2.1)

0.9 (0.6 to 1.2)

1.5 (1.1 to 2.0)*

With spouse

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

Income

Low

1.1 (0.9 to 1.3)

1.0 (0.7 to 1.5)

1.4 (0.8 to 2.3)

1.7 (0.9 to 3.2)

1.0 (0.5 to 2.3)

2.1 (1.4 to 3.2)*

0.7 (0.4 to 1.2)

0.9 (0.6 to 1.4)

0.7 (0.4 to 1.3)

Low average

1.1 (0.9 to 1.3)

1.1 (0.8 to 1.6)

1.5 (0.9 to 2.5)

2.1 (1.2 to 3.8)*

1.1 (0.5 to 2.5)

1.5 (1.0 to 2.3)

0.6 (0.3 to 1.0)

0.9 (0.5 to 1.4)

0.8 (0.4 to 1.4)

High average

1.0 (0.8 to 1.2)

1.2 (0.8 to 1.8)

0.8 (0.5 to 1.3)

2.0 (1.2 to 3.5)*

1.3 (0.6 to 2.7)

1.4 (0.8 to 2.2)

0.5 (0.3 to 0.8)*

0.5 (0.3 to 1.2)

0.9 (0.5 to 1.7)

High

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

Education

Low

1.1 (1.0 to 1.4)

0.7 (0.5 to 1.1)

0.9 (0.6 to 1.4)

14.1 (3.4 to 58.9)*

1.2 (0.7 to 2.1)

2.1 (1.3 to 3.2)*

0.2 (0.1 to 0.6)*

0.5 (0.2 to 1.5)

2.3 (1.4 to 3.8)*

Low average

1.1 (0.9 to 1.3)

1.1 (0.8 to 1.6)

1.2 (0.7 to 1.9)

1.0 (0.1 to 12.5)

1.2 (0.6 to 2.4)

1.6 (1.0 to 2.5)

0.5 (0.3 to 0.7)*

2.1 (1.1 to 4.1)*

1.3 (0.9 to 1.8)

High average

0.9 (0.8 to 1.1)

0.9 (0.7 to 1.2)

0.9 (0.5 to 1.5)

3.9 (0.6 to 27.0)

1.3 (0.7 to 2.4)

1.2 (0.7 to 1.9)

0.8 (0.5 to 1.2)

1.0 (0.5 to 1.9)

1.0 (0.6 to 1.5)

High

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0


*Significant at the 0.05 level, two-sided t-test

aAll models were bivariate models with the sociodemographic factors as predictors and 12-month MDE as the response variable. The models for total (first column) control for countries. The models for income were estimated in part II samples, whereas all other models were estimated in part I samples.

bIn some countries, people were categorized as separated/widowed/divorced because they were known to have married previously but not anymore, but the specific category was unknown. These cases were dropped from the model using marriage as the predictor. There were 48 cases in India, 35 in Brazil, 664 in Ukraine and 1 case in South Africa.

Bromet et al. BMC Medicine 2011 9:90   doi:10.1186/1741-7015-9-90

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