Table 3

Comparisons of functional impairment (WHO-DAS Global Scores)a by recency of DSM-IV/CIDI major depressive episodes in the 18 countries participating in the WMH surveys

Past 30 days

Past 12 monthsb

> 12 months ago

No lifetime MDE


Mean ± SE

n

Mean ± SE

n

Mean ± SE

n

Mean ± SE

n

SDc

F


I. High-income


Belgium

11.3 ± 3.3+

42

7.5 ± 2.1+

71

3.5 ± 0.5

254

3.2 ± 0.7

676

8.4

3.2*


France

13.6 ± 2.6+

38

6.6 ± 1.1 +

134

4.0 ± 0.5

476

3.2 ± 0.4

788

8.4

7.9*


Germany

15.3 ± 5.4+

36

4.1 ± 1.0

73

2.4 ± 0.4

263

2.7 ± 0.3

951

7.9

2.8


Israel

21.5 ± 2.4+

82

9.7 ± 1.0+

208

6.8 ± 0.8+

211

5.0 ± 0.2

4358

12.0

24.7*


Italy

15.4 ± 2.5+

58

6.3 ± 2.0+

71

3.0 ± 0.4+

323

2.1 ± 0.2

1327

6.8

13.5*


Japan

2.9 ± 2.6

11

2.9 ± 0.8+

49

1.5 ± 0.2

125

1.0 ± 0.2

882

4.4

2.3


Netherlands

17.9 ± 2.4+

42

5.7 ± 1.1

93

5.1 ± 0.4

341

4.1 ± 0.5

618

8.8

12.5*


New Zealand

11.7 ± 1.0+

292

5.0 ± 0.5+

606

3.2 ± 0.2+

1473

2.5 ± 0.1

5064

7.6

32.9*


Spain

15.7 ± 2.2+

109

6.1 ± 1.0+

138

4.3 ± 0.6+

425

2.1 ± 0.2

1449

7.6

24.9*


United States

15.8 ± 1.2+

297

7.6 ± 0.6+

496

4.3 ± 0.2+

1002

3.0 ± 0.2

3896

9.0

54.9*


Total

15.3 ± 0.7+

1005

6.8 ± 0.3+

1942

3.9 ± 0.1+

4903

3.0 ± 0.1

20,096

8.9

149.4*


II. Low- to middle-incomed


Sao Pâulo, Brazil

12.9 ± 1.6+

260

6.8 ± 0.6+

280

4.1 ± 0.5+

413

1.8 ± 0.2

1989

7.8

44.0*


Colombia

5.1 ± 1.4+

82

3.3 ± 0.7+

194

1.8 ± 0.3+

316

0.9 ± 0.1

1789

4.2

11.1*


Pondicherry, India

2.3 ± 0.5+

71

3.2 ± 0.8+

83

1.5 ± 0.4

153

1.0 ± 0.1

1066

4.3

3.9*


Lebanon

9.3 ± 1.5+

72

3.7 ± 0.8+

71

3.4 ± 0.7+

162

1.5 ± 0.2

726

5.8

17.3*


Mexico

8.0 ± 1.8+

117

3.4 ± 0.7+

142

1.4 ± 0.3+

250

0.6 ± 0.1

1853

4.3

8.5*


Shenzen, China

3.3 ± 0.5+

101

1.7 ± 0.4+

144

0.6 ± 0.1

138

0.5 ± 0.0

2093

2.4

16.9*


Ukraine

14.8 ± 1.2+

229

10.91.1+

159

6.8 ± 1.1+

238

3.7 ± 0.3

1093

9.7

46.3*


Total

10.1 ± 0.7+

932

5.2 ± 0.3+

1073

3.1 ± 0.2+

1670

1.3 ± 0.1

10,608

6.1

112.6*


*Significantly different at the .05 level based on a 3 degree of freedom test

+Significantly different from respondents with no lifetime MDE at the +.05 level, 2-sided test

aWHO-DAS: World Health Organization-Disability Assessment Schedule

bExcludes respondents with MDE in the past 30 days

cSD: Standard deviation of the impairment score in the total sample

dData for South Africa are not available.

Bromet et al. BMC Medicine 2011 9:90   doi:10.1186/1741-7015-9-90

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