Quantitative analyses of metastasis, apoptosis, DNA synthesis and vascular density in mammary carcinomas. (A) The multiplicity of lymph node metastasis was significantly lower in the 20 mg/kg/day α-mangostin group (*P < 0.05). (B) The multiplicity of lung metastasis tended to be lower in the α-mangostin-treated groups, but this was not statistically significant. (C) Apoptotic cell death, assessed by TUNEL staining, was significantly higher in the 20 mg/kg/day α-mangostin group (*P < 0.05). (D) BrdU labeling indices tended to be lower in the 20 mg/kg/day α-mangostin group. (E) Microvessel density in tumors, inferred by CD31-positive endothelium, was significantly lower in the 10 and 20 mg/kg/day α-mangostin groups. (F) The number of dilated lymphatic vessels containing intraluminal tumor cells was significantly lower in the 20 mg/kg/day α-mangostin group than in the control group (*P < 0.05). Data are presented as mean ± SD. BrdU: 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine; TUNEL: terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-FITC nick end-labeling.
Shibata et al. BMC Medicine 2011 9:69 doi:10.1186/1741-7015-9-69