Table 1

Summary of articles evaluating hospitalist performance (n = 65)a

Hospitalist performance

Source

Design

Hospital type

Study population

Sample

Comparison

Quality score

Processes of care

Operating efficiency

Patient outcomes


Abenhaim et al. [44]

RC

Teaching

Adults admitted to either GMS or medical short-stay unit

2,722

F vs. TWS

8

↑,*,ǂ

↑,*,ǂ

↑,*,ǂ

Auerbach et al. [85]

RC

Teaching

Adults admitted to GMS

5,308

A vs. C

24

-

Auerbach and Pantilat [76]

RC

Teaching

Adults admitted to GMS who died while in hospital

148

A vs. C

21

Batsis et al. [94]

B/A

Teaching

Seniors admitted for surgical repair of hip fracture

466

Fb vs. TWS

13

-,*

Bekmezian et al. [79]

RC

Paediatric teaching

Paediatric patients with oncologic, hematologic or gastroenterologic disease

925

F vs. TWS

17

↓,*

Bell et al. [52]

QE

Teaching (six sites)

All patients admitted to GMS

1,078

Mixed practice types

6

-,*

Bellet and Whitaker [80]

B/A

Paediatric teaching

Paediatric patients admitted to GMS

1,440

A vs. TWS and C

24

-,*

↓,*

Boyd et al. [95]

RC

Teaching

Paediatric patients admitted to GMS

1,009

P vs. TWS

16

Carek et al. [96]

RC

Community

Adults admitted to GMS

5,453

P vs. C P vs. TWS

21

↓,* ↓

-,* -

Craig et al. [61]

RC

Community (16 sites)

Adults admitted from one HMO to GMS

P vs. C

8

↑,ǂ

-,ǂ

Davis et al. [65]

RC

Community

All patients admitted to GMS

2,124

Pc vs. C

13

↑,*

-

Dhuper and Choksi [86]

B/A

Teaching

All patients admitted to GMS

10,966

Ac vs. TWS

14

↑,*

Diamond et al. [13]

B/A

Teaching

Adults admitted to GMS

3,299

A vs. C

16

↑,*

↑,*

Dwight et al. [45]

RC

Paediatric teaching

Paediatric patients admitted to GMS

3,807

F vs. TWS

22

-

-

Dynan et al. [97]

RC

Teaching

All patients admitted to GMS

5,543

Fc vs. TWS

14

-

Everett et al. [98]

RC

Community

All patients admitted to GMS

11,750

P vs. C

15

-

Everett et al. [87]

RC

Teaching

All patients admitted to GMS

22,792

P vs. C P vs. TWS

14

↑ ↓

- ↑

Freese et al. [60]

B/A

Community

All patients admitted to GMS

P vs. C

6

↑,*,ǂ

↑,*,ǂ

Gittell et al. [63]

RC

Community

All patients admitted to GMS

6,686

P vs. C

7

Go et al. [51]

QE

Teaching (six sites)

Adults admitted to GMS with diagnosis of acute upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage

450

A vs. TWS

22

-,*

-

Gregory et al. [99]

B/A

Teaching

All patients admitted to GMS

402

F vs. TWS

8

↑,*

-,*

Hackner et al. [68]

PC

Teaching

Adults on Medicaid admitted to GMS

1,637

A vs. C

19

↑,*

↑,*

-,*

Halasyamani et al. [100]

RC

Teaching

Adults admitted to GMS

10,595

P vs. C A vs. C

21

↑ ↑

- -

Huddleston et al. [48]

RCT

Teaching

Adults undergoing elective hip or knee arthroplasty

469

Fb vs. TWS

26

Kaboli et al. [50]

QE

Teaching

All patients admitted to GMS

1,706

A vs. TWS

23

-

Kearns et al. [56]

QE

Teaching

All patients admitted to GMS

4,455

A vs. TWS

26

-,*

-

-

Khasgiwali et al. [101]

RC

Teaching

All patients admitted to GMS

1,916

P and A vs. TWS

14

-,*

-,*

-,*

Krantz et al. [58]

B/A

Teaching

All patients admitted to chest pain observational unit

493

Pb vs. TWS

19

↑,*

-,*

Kulaga et al. [78]

RC

Teaching

All patients admitted to GMS

2,707

A vs. C

8

↑,*,ǂ

↑,*

Kuo et al. [102]

RC

Mixed (4,359 sites)

5% national sample of admissions among Medicare beneficiaries

314,590

Mixed practice types

16

Landrigan et al. [103]

TS

Paediatric teaching

Paediatric patients admitted to GMS from three HMOs

7,748

Ac vs. C

15

-

Lindenauer et al. [74]

RC

Teaching

Adults admitted with heart failure

326

P and A vs. C

14

-,*

Lindenauer et al. [92]

RC

Mixed (45 sites)

Adults admitted with pneumonia, heart failure, chest pain, stroke, UTI, COPD or acute MI

76,926

Mixed practice types

20

-

Maa et al. [62]

B/A

Teaching

Adults undergoing surgical appendectomy

A vs. TWS

7

↑,*

Meltzer et al. [54]

QE

Teaching

All patients admitted to GMS

6,511

A vs. TWS

20

Molinari and Short [104]

B/A

Community

Adults admitted from one HMO

1,319

Pc vs. C

8

Ogershok et al. [66]

B/A

Paediatric teaching

Paediatric patients admitted to GMS

2,177

A vs. TWS

14

↑,*

↑,*

-,*

Palacio et al. [88]

RC

Teaching

All patients admitted to GMS

5,943

F vs. TWS

11

↑,*

Palmer et al. [49]

QE

Teaching

All patients admitted to GMS

2,464

Ac vs. TWS

25

↑,*

Parekh et al. [105]

RC

Teaching

All patients admitted to GMS

2,552

A vs. TWS

19

-

-

Phy et al. [82]

B/A

Teaching

Older adults admitted for surgical repair of hip fracture

466

Fb,c vs. TWS

15

-,*

Pinzuer et al. [77]

B/A

Teaching

Adults admitted for lower-extremity salvage or reconstructive surgery

140

Fb vs. TWS

9

↓,ǂ,*

Ravikumar et al. [83]

B/A

Teaching (four sites)

Adult surgical patients

39,769

Fb,c vs. TWS

8

↓,ǂ,*

↓,*

Reddy et al. [72]

RC

Teaching

All patients admitted with community-acquired pneumonia

151

A vs. C and TWS

9

-

-

Rifkin et al. [70]

RC

Community

Adults admitted with community-acquired pneumonia

455

P vs. C

20

↑,*

-,*

Rifkin et al. [106]

RC

Teaching

All patients admitted to GMS

11,388

F vs. C

18

-

Rifkin et al. [69]

RC

Community

All patients admitted with community-acquired pneumonia

158

F vs. C

11

↑,*

Roy et al. [30]

RC

Teaching

Adults admitted with hip fracture

118

F vs. C

9

↑,*

Roytman et al. [67]

RC

Teaching

Adults admitted with congestive heart failure

342

F vs. C

20

Salottolo et al. [89]

B/A

Teaching

Adult trauma admissions

500

F vs. TWS

5

-

Scheurer et al. [107]

RC

Mixed (29 sites)

All patients admitted with bacterial pneumonia

11,969

Mixed practice types

7

↑,*

Schneider et al. [53]

QE

Teaching (six sites)

All admissions to GMS with HIV infection

1,207

A vs. TWS

17

-

-

-

Sharma et al. [9]

RC

Mixed (11 sites)

Older adults on Medicaid with advanced lung cancer

21,183

Mixed practice types

14

Simon et al. [84]

B/A

Paediatric teaching

Paediatric patients undergoing spinal fusion

759

Fb vs. TWS

8

Sloan et al. [24]

B/A

Community VA

Adults admitted to inpatient psychiatric unit

1,409

Fc vs. Cc

18

-,*

↑,*

Smith et al. [71]

RC

Teaching

Adults admitted with community-acquired pneumonia

45

P vs. C

14

-

-,*

Somekh et al. [59]

RC

Teaching

Admissions to GMS or cardiac observational unit for chest pain

750

F vs. C F vs. cardiologist

11

↑,* ↓,*

↓,ǂ ↓

- ↓

Southern et al. [108]

RC

Teaching

All patients admitted to GMS

9,037

A vs. TWS

19

-

Srivastava et al. [64]

B/A

Paediatric teaching

Paediatric patients from one HMO admitted with asthma, dehydration or viral illness

1,970

A vs. TWS

19

Stein et al. [73]

RC

Teaching

Adult admitted with community-acquired pneumonia

237

A vs. C

11

-,*

↑,*

-,*

Tenner et al. [57]

B/A

Paediatric teaching (two sites)

Paediatric admissions to ICU

1,211

P vs. TWS

17

Tingle and Lambert [109]

RC

Teaching

Adults admitted to GMS

529

F vs. TWS

14

-

-,*

Vasilevskis et al. [75]

RC

Teaching (six sites)

Adults with heart failure admitted to GMS

372

Mixed practice types

18

-

-

Wachter et al. [55]

QE

Teaching

All patients admitted to GMS

1,623

A vs. TWS

18

-,*

-

Wells et al. [110]

PC

Community

Paediatric patients admitted to GMS

181

P vs. C

5

-,*


aRCT, randomized, controlled trial; QE, quasi-experimental design; TS, time series; PC, prospective cohort; RC, retrospective cohort; B/A, before versus after; CS, cross-sectional survey; GMS, general medical service; HMO, health maintenance organization; UTI, urinary tract infection; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; MI, myocardial infarction; HIV, human immunodeficiency virus; ICU, intensive care unit; P, private hospitalist attending physician; F, nonacademic faculty hospitalist attending physician; A, academic hospitalist attending physician; C, community-based physician; TWS, traditional academic attending physicians with teaching responsibilities; bhospitalists were comanaging their patients' care with comparison healthcare providers; cuse of physician's assistants, nurse practitioners and/or discharge planners in the provision of care; ↑ indicates improved performance by hospitalists; - indicates no difference in performance between providers; ↓ indicates worse performance by hospitalists; ǂ indicates that a P value or confidence interval was not provided, so results may or may not be statistically significant; *indicates that results are unadjusted.

White and Glazier BMC Medicine 2011 9:58   doi:10.1186/1741-7015-9-58

Open Data