Increased levels of transcripts for effector cytokines in the mucosa from celiac disease patients (CD) but not gluten-sensitive patients (GS). Expression of the indicated genes was measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay (see Methods). Boxes represent the median (interquartile range) and whiskers represent the range of RNA levels relative to an 18S housekeeping gene in 13 GS, 19 CD and 11 dyspeptic controls (DC). *P < 0.05 relative to DC (Mann-Whitney U test).
Sapone et al. BMC Medicine 2011 9:23 doi:10.1186/1741-7015-9-23