Table 1

Demographic, clinical and venous hemodynamic characteristics of relapsing remitting MS patients and healthy controlsa

Characteristic

MS patients

(n = 16)

Healthy controls

(n = 8)

P value


Female sex, n (%)

10 (63%)

6 (75%)

NS

Mean age, yr (±SD)

36.1 ± 7.3

33.1 ± 7.3

NS

Disease duration, mean (±SD)

7.5 ± 1.9

Age at diagnosis, mean (±SD)

35.8 ± 9.2

Expanded Disability Status Scale, mean (±SD) and median (range)

2.4 ± 0.9, 2.5 (1.0 to 3.5)

Mean Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite score (±SD)

-2.5 ± 0.03

-2.5 ± 0.02

NS

Mean treatment duration, yr (±SD)

4.3 ± 3.4

Distribution of VH criteria, n (%)

VH1

12 (75%)

0 (0%)

<0.001

VH2

14 (88%)

0 (0%)

VH3

14 (88%)

1 (13%)

VH4

13 (81%)

0 (0%)

VH5

8 (50%)

0 (0%)

Mean number of VH criteria (±SD)

3.8 ± 0.23

0.12 ± 0.35

<0.001

Mean VHISS (±SD)

8.9 ± 2.8

0 ± 0

<0.001


aMS, multiple sclerosis; VH, venous hemodynamic; SD, standard deviation; VHISS, venous hemodynamic insufficiency severity score; NS, nonsignificant. The differences between MS patients and healthy controls were assessed using the Student's t-test, Fisher's exact test and Mann-Whitney rank-sum test.

Zamboni et al. BMC Medicine 2011 9:22   doi:10.1186/1741-7015-9-22

Open Data