Ultrasound assessment in CCSVI. (a) Triplex scanner, longitudinal access of the neck in chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency multiple sclerosis patient. In the distal internal jugular vein, close to the junction, the flow is blocked as demonstrated both by the absence of color and by the Doppler spectrum analysis, with the sample completely open in the lumen and no angle correction. (b) An immobile intraluminal defect of the defined septum (multiple arrows) almost completely obstructing the lumen shows the cause of the hampered venous outflow.
Zamboni et al. BMC Medicine 2011 9:22 doi:10.1186/1741-7015-9-22