Table 5

Perinatal outcomes among singleton and first child of multiple births by mode of delivery

Perinatal outcomes

n/N (%)

Adjusted OR [95%CI]


Perinatal mortality

Spontaneous (reference)

3218/205551(1.57)

1

Operative

415/7296(5.69)

3.16 (2.76 to 3.61)

Antepartum without indications

6/1735(0.35)

0.72 (0.26 to 1.97)

Intrapartum without indications

16/950(1.68)

2.41 (1.39 to 4.2)

Antepartum with indications

534/27011(1.98)

1.3 (1.15 to 1.47)

Intrapartum with indications

1081/44022(2.46)

2.01 (1.84 to 2.19)

Fetal death††

Spontaneous (reference)

1981/205551 (0.96)

1

Operative

291/7296 (3.99)

3.25 (2.79 to 3.79)

Antepartum without indications

3/1735(0.17)

0.48 (0.12 to 1.98)

Intrapartum without indications

11/950(1.16)

2.3 (1.2 to 4.4)

Antepartum with indications

248/27011 (0.92)

0.92 (0.78 to 1.09)

Intrapartum with indications

577/44022 (1.31)

1.6 (1.43 to 1.79)

Early neonatal deaths up to hospital discharge

Spontaneous (reference)

1237/203570 (0.61)

1

Operative

124/7005 (1.82)

2.76 (2.19 to 3.47)

Antepartum without indications

3/1732(0.17)

0.88 (0.21 to 3.62)

Intrapartum without indications

5/939(0.53)

2.01 (0.8 to 5.06)

Antepartum with indications

286/26477(1.08)

1.68 (1.42 to 1.98)

Intrapartum with indications

504/43445(1.16)

2.2 (1.94 to 2.5)

Stay for ≥7 days in neonatal intensive care unit‡‡

Spontaneous (reference)

2704/205551(1.32)

1

Operative

203/7296(2.78)

1.57 (1.31 to 1.88)

Antepartum without indications

17/1735(0.98)

1.18 (0.7 to 1.99)

Intrapartum without indications

16/950(1.68)

2.09 (1.21 to 3.6)

Antepartum with indications

1466/27011(5.43)

2.63 (2.4 to 2.89)

Intrapartum with indications

1625/44022(3.69)

2.77 (2.55 to 3)

Severe perinatal outcome‡‡‡

Spontaneous (reference)

5820/205551 (2.83)

1

Operative

613/7296 (8.4)

2.33 (2.07 to 2.62)

Antepartum without indications

22/1735(1.27)

1 (0.61 to 1.62)

Intrapartum without indications

32/950(3.37)

2.48 (1.66 to 3.69)

Antepartum with indications

1968/27011(7.29)

2.05 (1.9 to 2.22)

Intrapartum with indications

2656/44022(6.03)

2.42 (2.27 to 2.58)


† Maternal age, Total number of years attended school, birth weight, Neonatal death or stillbirth, Pregnancy induced hypertension or preeclampsia or eclampsia or chronic hypertension, Vaginal bleeding in 2nd half of pregnancy, Any antenatal antibiotic treatment, Referred for complication related to pregnancy or delivery, Induced labour, Any other medical complication during pregnancy (excluding chronic hypertension), country and gestational age

†† Maternal age, Total number of years attended school, birth weight, Neonatal death or stillbirth, Pregnancy induced hypertension or preeclampsia or eclampsia or chronic hypertension, Vaginal bleeding in 2nd half of pregnancy, Referred for complication related to pregnancy or delivery, Any other medical complication during pregnancy (excluding chronic hypertension) and gestational age

‡ Total number of years attended school, birth weight, Neonatal death or stillbirth, Vaginal bleeding in 2nd half of pregnancy, Referred for complication related to pregnancy or delivery, Induced labour, country and gestational age

‡‡ Maternal age, Total number of years attended school, Primigravida, birth weight, Neonatal death or stillbirth, Caesarean section at last pregnancy, Prelabour rupture of membranes, Pregnancy induced hypertension or preeclampsia or eclampsia or chronic hypertension, Suspected fetal growth impairment, Any antenatal antibiotic treatment, Breech or other non-cephalic presentation, Referred for complication related to pregnancy or delivery, Induced labour, Any other medical complication during pregnancy (excluding chronic hypertension), country, complexity of index and gestational age

‡‡‡ Maternal age, Total number of years attended school, birth weight, Neonatal death or stillbirth, Caesarean section at last pregnancy, Prelabour rupture of membranes, Pregnancy induced hypertension or preeclampsia or eclampsia or chronic hypertension, Suspected fetal growth impairment, Vaginal bleeding in 2nd half of pregnancy, Breech or other non-cephalic presentation, Referred for complication related to pregnancy or delivery, Induced labour, Any other medical complication during pregnancy (excluding chronic hypertension), country, complexity of index and gestational age

Souza et al. BMC Medicine 2010 8:71   doi:10.1186/1741-7015-8-71

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