Table 1

Diseases associated with nausea and vomiting during pregnancy (alphabetical order), adapted from reference [2].

Causes

Differential diagnosis


Gastrointestinal causes

Appendicitis


Diaphragmatic hernia


Gastroenteritis


Hepatic or cholecystic disorders


Hepatitis


Ileus and subileus


Pancreatitis


Stomach cancer


Stomach ulcer or duodenal ulcer


Metabolic causes

Addison's disease


Diabetic ketoacidosis


Hyperthyroidism


Porphyria


Thyrotoxicosis


Neurological causes

Korsakoff's psychosis


Migraine


Vestibular disorders


Wernicke's encephalopathy


Pregnancy associated

Acute fatty liver


Emesis gravidarum (<5 ×/day)


Hyperemesis gravidarum (>5 ×/day)


Multiple pregancy


Pre-eclampsia


Premature contractions


Urogenital causes

Degenerative uterine fibroids


Nephrolithiasis


Pyelonephritis


Uremia


Other causes

Drug poisoning


Food poisoning


Iron medication


Jueckstock et al. BMC Medicine 2010 8:46   doi:10.1186/1741-7015-8-46

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