Human stem cell transplants. Bone marrow cells are mobilized and recovered for autologos transplantation for a number of applications, including cancer, blood diseases, stroke and multiple sclerosis. Allogenic stem cells are frequently recovered from the placenta and umbilical cord. Mesenchymal stem cells are used for immune suppression and inflammatory conditions. Neural stem cells are of fetal origin or differentiated from embryonic stem (ES) cells and induced pluripotential stem (iPS) cells. Both ES and iPS cells are poised for clinical trials for repair of spinal injury, macular degeneration, diabetes and cancer.
Trounson BMC Medicine 2009 7:29 doi:10.1186/1741-7015-7-29