MPLSM/SHG imaging detects increased collagen density in the mammary gland. (A) H&E stain of wild type control mammary gland imaged with bright field microscopy. (B) MPE image of (A) showing the power of MPLSM to visualize collagen structure. (C) H&E stain of mammary gland from a col1a1/col1a1 homozygote mouse. (D) MPE image of (C) showing increased visualization of collagen density and structure and the irregular epithelial-stromal boundary, with epithelial cells invading into the locally increased collagen stroma. (E-G) MPLSM/SHG image of live mammary ducts that are not fixed, sectioned, or stained from wild type (E), heterozygous (F), and homozygous (G) col1a1 mice, showing increased collagen density in transgenic animals. (H) Z-stack of (F) spanning 340 μm (typical depth capability 350–440 μm) illustrating the structure of the glands and their relative location in the gland (see 4). Note: scale bar for MPE/SHG images equals 25 μm.
Provenzano et al. BMC Medicine 2006 4:38 doi:10.1186/1741-7015-4-38