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Open Access Highly Accessed Research article

The influence of long chain polyunsaturate supplementation on docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid in baboon neonate central nervous system

Guan-Yeu Diau13, Andrea T Hsieh1, Eszter A Sarkadi-Nagy14, Vasuki Wijendran15, Peter W Nathanielsz26 and J Thomas Brenna1*

Author Affiliations

1 Division of Nutritional Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, USA

2 College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York USA

3 Division of Pediatric Surgery, Department of Surgery, Tri-Service General Hospital (TSGH), National Defense Medical Center (NDMC), 325 Chenggung Rd, 2 Sec, Naihu, Taipei 114, Taiwan, Republic of China

4 Dept of Nutritional Sciences, University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA

5 Brandeis University, Foster Biomedical Laboratory, Waltham, MA, USA

6 Dept of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX, USA

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BMC Medicine 2005, 3:11  doi:10.1186/1741-7015-3-11

Published: 23 June 2005

Abstract

Background

Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) are major components of the cerebral cortex and visual system, where they play a critical role in neural development. We quantitatively mapped fatty acids in 26 regions of the four-week-old breastfed baboon CNS, and studied the influence of dietary DHA and ARA supplementation and prematurity on CNS DHA and ARA concentrations.

Methods

Baboons were randomized into a breastfed (B) and four formula-fed groups: term, no DHA/ARA (T-); term, DHA/ARA supplemented (T+); preterm, no DHA/ARA (P-); preterm and DHA/ARA supplemented (P+). At four weeks adjusted age, brains were dissected and total fatty acids analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry.

Results

DHA and ARA are rich in many more structures than previously reported. They are most concentrated in structures local to the brain stem and diencephalon, particularly the basal ganglia, limbic regions, thalamus and midbrain, and comparatively lower in white matter. Dietary supplementation increased DHA in all structures but had little influence on ARA concentrations. Supplementation restored DHA concentrations to levels of breastfed neonates in all regions except the cerebral cortex and cerebellum. Prematurity per se did not exert a strong influence on DHA or ARA concentrations.

Conclusion

1) DHA and ARA are found in high concentration throughout the primate CNS, particularly in gray matter such as basal ganglia; 2) DHA concentrations drop across most CNS structures in neonates consuming formulas with no DHA, but ARA levels are relatively immune to ARA in the diet; 3) supplementation of infant formula is effective at restoring DHA concentration in structures other than the cerebral cortex. These results will be useful as a guide to future investigations of CNS function in the absence of dietary DHA and ARA.