Table 1

Baseline distribution of lifestyle risk factors, the EPIC-Heidelberg cohorta
Men (n = 10,235) Women (n = 12,234)
Age, mean (range) 51.9 (40, 65.8) 49.3 (40, 66.0)
Smoking category (%)
Never smokers 3,156 (30.8) 5,808 (47.5)
Long-term quitters (>10 years) 3,414 (33.4) 2,384 (19.5)
Short-term quitters (≤10 years) 1,206 (11.8) 1,194 (9.8)
Light smokers (≤10 cigarettes/day) 638 (6.2) 1,228 (10.0)
Heavy smokers (>10 cigarettes/day) 1,821 (17.8) 1,620 (13.2)
Body weight status (%)
Optimal BMI (22.5 to 24.9 kg/m2) 2,379 (23.2) 3,168 (25.9)
Low BMI (<22.5 kg/m2) 913 (8.9) 3,728 (30.5)
Overweight (BMI 25 to 29.9 kg/m2) 5,262 (51.5) 3,595 (29.4)
Obesity (BMI ≥30 kg/m2) 1,681 (16.4) 1,743 (14.2)
Alcoholic drinks/day (%)
≤2 (men)/ ≤0.5 (women) 6,060 (59.2) 7,278 (59.5)
2.1 to 4 (men)/ 0.6 to 1 (women) 2,700 (26.4) 2,649 (21.7)
>4 (men)/ >1 (women) 1,475 (14.4) 2,307 (18.8)
Leisure time physical activity (%)
High (≥36 METS-hours/week) 4,853 (47.4) 6,043 (49.4)
Low (<36 METS-hours/week) 5,382 (52.6) 6,191 (50.6)
Processed/red meat consumption (%)
Low (<120 g/day) 6,912 (67.5) 11,118 (90.9)
High (≥120 g/day) 3,323 (32.5) 1,116 (9.1)
Vegetable/fruit consumption (%)
High (≥200 g/day) 5,200 (50.8) 7,751 (63.4)
Low (<200 g/day) 5,035 (49.2) 4,483 (36.6)
Cereal consumption (%)
High (≥200 g/day) 5,185 (50.7) 3,931 (32.1)
Low (<200 g/day) 5,050 (49.3) 8,303 (67.9)
Fish consumption (%)
High (≥15 g/day) 6,363 (62.2) 6,066 (49.6)
Low (<15 g/day) 3,872 (37.8) 6,168 (50.4)
Dairy product consumption (%)
Low (<200 g/day) 5,797 (56.6) 5,961 (48.7)
High (≥200 g/day) 4,438 (43.4) 6,273 (51.3)
Education level (%)
No/primary school 3,067 (30.0) 3,176 (26.0)
Secondary/professional 3,288 (32.1) 5,965 (48.7)
University 3,880 (37.9) 3,093 (25.3)
Self-reported hypertension (%)
No 6,886 (67.3) 9,435 (77.1)
Yes 3,349 (32.7) 2,799 (22.9)
Self-reported hyperlipidemia (%)
No 5,989 (58.5) 8,769 (71.7)
Yes 4,246 (41.5) 3,465 (28.3)

aParticipants with pre-existing diabetes, cardiovascular disease or cancer were excluded. BMI, body mass index; EPIC, European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition; METS, metabolic equivalents.

Li et al.

Li et al. BMC Medicine 2014 12:59   doi:10.1186/1741-7015-12-59

Open Data