Table 1

Characterization of included studies that use the initial definition of HCAI[3]by focus of infection
Author, publication year Study design MDR* organisms, n (%) Risk of bias
Bacteriemia CAI HCAI HAI
Friedman et al., 2002 [3] Prospective, multicenter, 504 patients, USA, 4 to 5 months Not mentioned High
Marschall et al., 2009 [16] Prospective, single center, 250 patients, Gram-negative, USA, 6 months 0 (0) 9 (7) 10 (11) Low
Evans et al., 2009 [17] Retrospective, multicenter, 223 patients, spinal cord injury, USA, 7 years 6 (17) 34 (31) 111 (42) High
Son et al., 2010 [18] Prospective, multicenter, 1,144 patients, Korea, 12 months 29 (8) 38 (7) 162 (79) Low
Rodriguez-Bano et al., 2010 [19] Prospective, multicenter, 821 bacteremia episodes including potential contaminants, Spain, 2 to 5 months 7 (5) 29 (15) 99 (21) Moderate
VallĂ©s et al., 2011 [8] Prospective, multicenter, 726 patients, Spain and Argentina, 12 months 7 (2) 11 (8) 29 (12) High
Pneumonia CAI HCAI
CarratalĂ  et al., 2007 [10] Prospective, single center, 727 patients, those with neutropenia, AIDS and after transplantation were excluded, Spain, 4 years. 3 (1) 2 (2) Low
Shindo et al., 2009 [20] Retrospective, single center, 371 patients, Japan, 1 year and 3 months 6 (6) 17 (22) Low
Park et al., 2010 [9] Retrospective, single center, 345 patients, CAI and HCAI were considered until 72 h after hospital admission; patients with neutropenia, AIDS and after transplantation were excluded, Korea, 1 year. 7 (15) 21 (32) Moderate
Pascual et al., 2010 [21] Retrospective, single center, 308 patients with bacteriemic pneumonia, Spain, 6 years CAI (2) HCAI (12) HAI (31) High
Umeki et al., 2011 [22] Prospective, single center, 202 patients, Japan, 2 years 10 (21) 12 (25) Moderate
Seki et al., 2011 [23] Retrospective, single center, 34 patients Japan, 4 months 0 (0) 6 (43) Moderate
Garcia-Vidal et al., 2011 [24] Prospective, single center, 2,153 patients, those with more than one condition of HCAI, with neutropenia, AIDS, after transplantation and chronic corticosteroid treatment were excluded, Spain, 8 years and 9 months 19 (2) 7 (2) Low
Jung et al., 2011 [25] Retrospective, single center, 527 patients, Korea, 1 year 15 (18) 30 (38) Low
Jeon et al., 2011 [26] Retrospective, multicenter, 210 patients older than 60 years, Korea, 2 years. 10 (16) 20 (67) Low
Depuydt et al. 2011 [27] Retrospective, single center, 269 patients, those with neutropenia, transplantation or transferred from another hospital were excluded, Belgium, 1 year 0 (0) 6 (30) Low
Park et al., 2012 [4] Prospective, single center, 339 patients, Korea, 2 years 35 (20) 52 (31) Low
Lee et al., 2012 [28] Retrospective, multicenter study, 250 patients, Korea, 21 months 3 (4) 17 (31) Low
Other foci CAI HCAI HAI
Benito et al., 2009 [5] Prospective, single center,1622 patients with endocarditis, comparing CAI with healthcare associated that included non-nosocomial and nosocomial, intra-venous drug users and prosthetic valves were excluded, USA, 6 months. 25 (3) 41 (17) 76 (26) Low
Wu et al., 2011 [29] Retrospective, single center,192 patients with endocarditis, Taiwan, 5 years 15 (11) 13 (43) 17 (81) Moderate
Aguilar-Duran et al., 2012 [6] Prospective, single center, 251 patients with urinary infection, Spain, 7 to 8 months 2 (2) 15 (15) 9 (14) High

*MDR, MRSA, Pseudomonas sp, Acinectobacter, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, ESBL. CAI, community-acquired infection; HAI, hospital-acquired infection; HCAI, healthcare-associated infection; MDR, multidrug-resistant.

Cardoso et al.

Cardoso et al. BMC Medicine 2014 12:40   doi:10.1186/1741-7015-12-40

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