Table 1

Characteristics of cancer patients who die from cancer (cases) compared with controls, by cancer site
Breast cancer Colorectal cancer Prostate cancer
Cases Controls P Cases Controls P Cases Controls P
number (%) number (%) number (%) number (%) number (%) number (%)
Year of diagnosis
  1998 to 2000 500 (35) 2,466 (35) N.A. 379 (25) 1,842 (25) N.A. 396 (33) 1,941 (33) N.A.
  2001 to 2003 518 (36) 2,570 (36) 564 (37) 2,721 (37) 461 (39) 2,281 (39)
  2003 to 2006 417 (29) 2,070 (29) 568 (38) 2,728 (37) 327 (28) 1,627 (28)
Age at diagnosis (years)
  <50 339 (24) 1,667 (23) N.A. 90 (6) 330 (5) N.A. 6 (1) 20 (0) N.A.
  50 to 59 286 (20) 1,430 (20) 226 (15) 1,117 (15) 71 (6) 351(6)
  60 to 69 273 (19) 1,365 (19) 401 (27) 2,001 (27) 280 (24) 1,400 (24)
  70 to 79 318 (22) 1,588 (22) 496 (33) 2,472 (34) 532 (45) 2,660 (45)
  ≥ 80 219 (15) 1,056 (15) 298 (20) 1,371 (19) 295 (25) 1,418 (24)
Male 0 (0) 0 (0) N.A. 871 (58) 4,231 (58) N.A. 1,184(100) 5,849 (100) N.A.
Exposure period (years):
Mean (sd) 3.9 (2.3) 3.9 (2.3) N.A. 2.8 (1.6) 2.9 (1.7) N.A. 3.8 (2.2) 3.7 (2.2) N.A.
Range 1.0 to 12.8 1.0 to 12.8 N.A. 1.0 to 10.5 1.0 to 10.5 N.A. 1.0 to 11.9 1.0 to 11.9
Stage:1 72 (11) 1,471 (43) <0.001 61 (6) 1,044 (18) <0.001
  2 402 (61) 1,676 (49) 275 (25) 2,496 (44)
  3 116 (18) 220 (6) 558 (51) 1,981 (35)
  4 64 (10) 40 (1) 203 (19) 195 (3)
  Missing 781 3,699 414 1,575
Grade:Well 54 (6) 751 (19) 81 (7) 562 (9) <0.001 34 (4) 538 (13) <0.001
  Moderate 377 (41) 1,900 (49) 889 (75) 4,894 (78) 217 (28) 2,067 (48)
  Poor 492 (53) 1,217 (31) 208 (17) 818 (13) 516 (67) 1,683 (39)
  Missing 512 3,280 333 1017 417 1561
Treatment within six months of diagnosis
  Chemotherapy 573 (40) 1,611 (23) <0.001 651 (43) 1,916 (26) <0.001 49 (4) 137 (2) <0.001
  Radiotherapy 700 (49) 3,355 (47) 0.22 302 (20) 1,066 (15) <0.001 246 (21) 1,276 (22) 0.48
  Surgery 1,087 (76) 5,982 (84) <0.001 1,214 (80) 65,15 (89) <0.001
  Tamoxifen therapy 709 (49) 4,610 (65) <0.001
  Androgen therapy 976 (82) 3,450 (59) <0.001
  Radical prostatectomya 20 (2) 331 (8) <0.001
Smoking prior to diagnosis 0.03 0.01 <0.001
  Non-smoker 710 (60) 3,827 (64) 640 (51) 3,138 (52) 453 (47) 2,541 (52)
  Ex-smoker 226 (19) 1,072 (18) 365 (29) 1,885 (31) 331 (34) 1,660 (34)
  Current smoker 249 (21) 1,094 (18) 249 (20) 983 (16) 185 (19) 674 (14)
  Missing 250 1,113 257 1285 215 974
BMI prior to diagnosis 0.01 0.66 0.05
  Mean (sd) 26.6 (5.5) 26.2 (5.1) 26.5 (4.7) 26.6 (4.8) 26.4 (4.0) 26.1 (3.7)
  Missing 386 1,633 412 1,810 302 1,362
Alcohol prior to diagnosis 0.58 0.47 0.37
  Alcohol consumer 831 (80) 4,333 (81) 950 (87) 4,585 (86) 791 (89) 4,047 (90)
  Missing 401 1,779 420 1,977 298 1366
Comorbidity (prior to diagnosis or during follow-up time)
  Cerebrovascular 89 (6) 383 (5) 0.53 117 (8) 493 (7) 0.19 124 (10) 509 (9) 0.07
  C.P.D. 264 (18) 1,247 (18) 0.60 236 (16) 1295 (18) 0.06 229 (19) 1,110 (19) 0.80
  C.H.D. 60 (4) 249 (4) 0.68 91 (6) 367 (5) 0.13 108 (9) 395 (7) 0.01
  Diabetes 126 (9) 468 (7) 0.02 192 (13) 866 (12) 0.21 141 (12) 619 (11) 0.17
  Myocardial infarction 26 (2) 148 (2) 0.74 104 (7) 454 (6) 0.32 130 (11) 522 (9) 0.03
  Peptic ulcer disease 39 (3) 184 (3) 0.79 111 (7) 477 (7) 0.19 77 (7) 440 (8) 0.18
  P.V.D. 51 (4) 165 (2) 0.003 64 (4) 331 (5) 0.70 113 (10) 396 (7) 0.001
  Renal disease 78 (5) 382 (5) 0.92 107 (7) 478 (7) 0.45 138 (12) 509 (9) 0.001
  Rheumatological 76 (5) 330 (5) 0.35 55 (4) 272 (4) 0.82 37 (3) 287 (5) 0.01

aExcludes cancer registries without available data. C.P.D., chronic pulmonary disease; C.H.D., congestive heart disease; N.A., not applicable; P.V.D., peripheral vascular disease; sd, standard deviation.

Cardwell et al.

Cardwell et al. BMC Medicine 2014 12:28   doi:10.1186/1741-7015-12-28

Open Data