Table 3

Dose–response relationships between levels of selected metabolites and frequency of birth outcomes
Outcome Metabolite Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 P value for trend
All PB types (n = 114) Steroid conjugate: 0.63 (s) 21% 22% 25% 32% 0.01*
Formate 32% 25% 23% 20% 0.02*
SPB (n = 88) Steroid conjugate: 0.63 (s) 20% 22% 24% 34% 0.01*
Lysine 14% 30% 26% 31% 0.03*
Trimethylamine-N-oxide 26% 28% 28% 17% 0.10
Glycine 26% 34% 20% 19% 0.07
N-methyl-2-pyridone-5-carboxamide 19% 19% 30% 32% 0.03*
Formate 32% 25% 24% 19% 0.02
IPB (n = 26) N-acetyl glycoprotein fragments 8% 23% 19% 50% 0.01**
Phenylacetylglutamine 42% 27% 12% 19% 0.03*
FGR (n = 36) Tyrosine 33% 36% 17% 14% 0.03*
Lactate 33% 33% 17% 17% 0.05*
Alanine 39% 31% 11% 19% 0.03*
Acetate 39% 31% 22% 8% 0.004**
Citrate 33% 39% 14% 14% 0.02*
Trimethylamine 50% 19% 17% 14% 0.002**
Glycine 33% 39% 11% 17% 0.03*
Formate 39% 28% 19% 14% 0.02*
SGA (n = 19) Leucine 16% 16% 26% 42% 0.06
Lactate 37% 37% 16% 11% 0.05*
Alanine 42% 32% 16% 11% 0.03*
Acetate 42% 21% 32% 5% 0.05*
N-acetyl neuraminic acid 21% 11% 16% 53% 0.04*
Trimethylamine 47% 16% 21% 16% 0.07
Glycine 42% 37% 11% 11% 0.02*

Percentage of each birth outcome frequency across pregnant women stratified by metabolite levels (into quartiles: Q1, Q2, Q3, and Q4).

*P < 0.05 and **P < 0.01 for a significant trend in outcome (Cochrane-Armitage trend test, highlighted in bold).

FGR, fetal growth restriction; IPB, induced preterm birth; SGA, small for gestational age; SPB, spontaneous preterm birth.

Maitre et al.

Maitre et al. BMC Medicine 2014 12:110   doi:10.1186/1741-7015-12-110

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