Table 2

Urinary metabolites with significant median differences between birth outcome cases and controls
Selected resonance (δ), ppm All PB types (n = 114) SPB (n = 88) IPB (n = 26) FGR (n = 36) SGA (n = 19)
P value q value % diff P value q value % diff P value q value % diff P value q value % diff P value q value % diff
Tyrosinea 6.87 (d), 7.18 (d) 0.055 0.264 −15% 0.161 0.410 −12% 0.083 0.530 −20% 0.008 0.024 −24% 0.094 0.220 −25%
Steroid conjugate – 0.63 (s) 0.63 (s) 0.039 0.252 17% 0.045 0.218 19% 0.391 0.808 11% 0.129 0.096 15% 0.392 0.486 8%
Leucine 0.96 (t) 0.364 0.578 2% 0.227 0.463 2% 0.778 0.893 −2% 0.443 0.226 1% 0.026 0.093 11%
Lactate 1.33 (d) 0.342 0.562 −5% 0.259 0.482 −5% 0.988 0.914 −4% 0.025 0.051 −19% 0.009 0.081 −19%
Alanine 1.48 (d) 0.627 0.702 −1% 0.426 0.602 −2% 0.653 0.875 3% 0.031 0.055 −10% 0.027 0.094 −9%
Lysine 1.73 (m) 0.056 0.264 1% 0.016 0.214 2% 0.762 0.891 −2% 0.349 0.197 −4% 0.512 0.553 0%
Acetate 1.92 (s) 0.423 0.613 −2% 0.885 0.758 0% 0.106 0.564 −7% 0.003 0.018 −9% 0.017 0.081 −11%
N-acetyl glycoprotein fragments 2.04 (s) 0.390 0.594 3% 0.783 0.735 0% 0.009 0.231 9% 0.358 0.200 −4% 0.913 0.688 −1%
N-acetyl neuraminic acid 2.06 (s) 0.806 0.752 0% 0.701 0.713 0% 0.173 0.650 7% 0.525 0.248 1% 0.015 0.081 10%
Citrate 2.55 (d) 0.818 0.754 −2% 0.882 0.757 −1% 0.395 0.809 −5% 0.045 0.067 −9% 0.119 0.250 −9%
Trimethylamine 2.87 (s) 0.094 0.277 −2% 0.218 0.457 −1% 0.133 0.593 −7% 0.002 0.018 −18% 0.013 0.081 −17%
Trimethylamine-N-oxide 3.27 (s) 0.067 0.270 −3% 0.032 0.217 −3% 0.976 0.913 6% 0.184 0.126 −7% 0.084 0.206 −9%
Glycine 3.57 (d) 0.103 0.279 −5% 0.049 0.218 −10% 0.920 0.908 8% 0.019 0.044 −14% 0.008 0.081 −17%
Phenylacetylglutamine 7.37 (d) 0.071 0.271 −9% 0.356 0.558 −3% 0.015 0.231 −21% 0.871 0.339 −1% 0.428 0.508 −12%
N-methyl-2-pyridone-5-carboxamide 8.33 (s) 0.065 0.269 8% 0.049 0.218 8% 0.676 0.879 −3% 0.764 0.311 −7% 0.545 0.568 −10%
Formate 8.46 (s) 0.004 0.105 −11% 0.009 0.214 −12% 0.115 0.574 −8% 0.007 0.024 −16% 0.410 0.498 −2%

% diff – percentage difference in group median.

Metabolite differences with P < 0.05 (Mann–Whitney test) are in bold type.

q Values indicate false discovery rate (likelihood of a false positive finding).

aMetabolite levels were determined by peak integration except for tyrosine, for which the Chenomx NMR suite was used.

FGR, fetal growth restriction; IPB, induced preterm birth; SGA, small for gestational age; SPB, spontaneous preterm birth.

Letters in brackets in the selected resonance column represent the signal multiplicity with (s) for singlets, (d) for doublets, (m) for multiplet and (t) for triplets.

Maitre et al.

Maitre et al. BMC Medicine 2014 12:110   doi:10.1186/1741-7015-12-110

Open Data