Table 1

Characteristics of the study population with respect to pregnancy outcomes
SPB (n = 88) IPB (n = 26) FGR (n = 36) SGA (n = 19) Control (n = 275)
Categorical variables Maternal education Low 31 (35.6%)*** 6 (23.1%) 10 (27.8%)* 4 (21.1%) 37 (13.5%)
Medium 37 (42.5%) 11 (42.3%) 10 (27.8%) 7 (36.8%) 139 (50.5%)
High 19 (21.8%) 9 (34.6%) 16 (44.4%) 8 (42.1%) 99 (36.0%)
Greek origin 82 (93.2%) 26 (100.0%) 35 (97.2%) 19 (100.0%) 258 (94.2%)
Multiparity 58 (65.9%) 19 (73.1%) 20 (55.6%) 12 (63.2%) 187 (68.0%)
Smoking during pregnancy 19 (22.9%) 6 (24.0%) 10 (27.8%) 8 (42.1%)* 55 (20.4%)
Pre-pregnancy BMI Underweight 6 (7.2%)*** 1 (4.0%) 1 (2.8%)* 1 (5.3%) 6 (2.2%)
Normal 49 (59.0%) 10 (40.0%) 27 (75.0%) 15 (78.9%) 181 (66.8%)
Overweight 16 (19.3%) 8 (32.0%) 4 (11.1%) 2 (10.5%) 54 (19.9%)
Obese 12 (14.5%) 6 (24.0%) 4 (11.1%) 1 (5.3%) 30 (11.1%)
FGR 3 (4.0%) 3 (14.3%) 36 (100.0%)*** 17 (94.4%)*** 0 (0.0%)
Continuous variables Maternal age, years 29.0 (26.0 to 33.0) 31.0 (27.2 to 36.0) 30.0 (27.0 to 33.2) 30.0 (28.0 to 33.0) 31.0 (27.0 to 34.5)
Gestational age, weeks 35.5 (35.0 to 36.0)*** 36.0 (35.5 to 36.0)*** 39.0 (37.5 to 40.0) 38.0 (38.0 to 40.0) 39.0 (38.0 to 39.0)
Birth weight, g 2715 (2430 to 2980)*** 2800 (2570 to 2890)*** 2610 (2482 to 2802)*** 2550 (2182 to 2615)*** 3250 (3010 to 3550)
Cholesterol (n = 227) 215.0 (189.5 to 237.0) 222.0 (212.8 to 233.0)* 205.0 (163.0 to 225.0) 225.0 (198.0 to 234.0) 202.0 (178.5 to 231.0)
Triglycerides (n = 227) 112.0 (86.5 to 134.5) 149.0 (104.0 to 159.2) 99.0 (89.0 to 119.0) 95.0 (89.0 to 131.0) 111.0 (85.5 to 138.0)
Insulin (n = 369) 6.3 (2.3 to 14.8) 10.6 (5.0 to 17.5)* 8.3 (3.2 to 26.6) 5.1 (2.7 to 37.9) 5.5 (2.0 to 15.9)
LDL-C (n = 227) 128.0 (101.5 to 138.5) 130.0 (121.2 to 135.8) 116.0 (90.0 to 142.0) 142.0 (112.0 to 149.0) 114.0 (98.5 to 142.0)
HDL-C (n = 227) 61.0 (52.0 to 71.0) 70.5 (59.8 to 79.2) 59.0 (49.0 to 69.0) 63.0 (49.0 to 67.0) 60.0 (49.0 to 68.5)
Systolic BP (n = 338) 107.7 (101.0 to 115.7) 110.7 (105.7 to 117.3) 105.0 (96.0 to 112.1) 99.7 (94.2 to 110.2) 106.3 (100.3 to 112.0)
Diastolic BP (n = 338) 69.7 (64.3 to 76.0) 74.5 (69.6 to 79.3) 69.3 (61.3 to 77.0) 65.2 (58.2 to 77.3) 69.7 (63.7 to 76.0)

Values are presented as medians (interquartile range) for continuous variables or frequencies, n (%) for categorical variables.

*P < 0.05 and ***P < 0.001 where P values were calculated using the χ2 test (categorical variables) or Mann–Whitney test (continuous) between cases and controls.

Gestational age and type of PB were known for 438 women, whereas FGR data were available for 401 women. BMI, body mass index; BP, blood pressure; FGR, fetal growth restriction; HDL-C, high density lipoprotein cholesterol; IPB, induced preterm birth; LDL-C, low density lipoprotein cholesterol; SGA, small for gestational age; SPB, spontaneous preterm birth.

Maitre et al.

Maitre et al. BMC Medicine 2014 12:110   doi:10.1186/1741-7015-12-110

Open Data