Figure 9.

CCL2-dependent systemic translocation of Al-particles. a) CCL2 deficient mice show a dramatic decrease of Al-Rho translocation from the injected muscle to inguinal DLN, blood, spleen and brain, as compared to their respective controls (100%). Note that the difference is significant but less pronounced for popliteal DLN; b) rCCL-2 co-injection with Al-Rho is associated with a marked increase of Al-Rho translocation from the injected muscle to inguinal DLN, blood, spleen and brain, compared to their respective controls (100%). Note that the difference is significant but less pronounced for popliteal DLN; c) rCCL-2 infused by an osmotic micropump into the striatum for 15 days is associated with a significant increase of Al-Rho translocation from the injected muscle to brain; d) Combined i.m. and i.c. injection of rCCL2 is associated with a dramatic increase of FLB translocation from muscle to both blood and brain; e) Alum-containing vaccine injected into muscle of CCL-2-deficient, normal, and rCCL-2 mice was associated with a trend of CCL-2-dependent increase of Al concentration levels in brain; (histograms: n = 3 per group, mean ± SD, * P <0.05, ** P <0.01, *** P <0.005, except [e]: n = 10 per group, mean ± SEM). Al-Rho, Al(OH)3 rhodamine nanohybrid; DLN, draining lymph nodes; FLB, fluorescent latex beads; n, number; SEM, standard error of the mean.

Khan et al. BMC Medicine 2013 11:99   doi:10.1186/1741-7015-11-99
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