Table 4

Meta-analysis

Outcome

Follow-up (months)

Treatment effect

Heterogeneity

Publication bias

Number of studies


Effect measure

Pooled estimate (95% CI)

P value for treatment effect

P value for Cochran's Q test

I squared statistica

Number of studies trimmedb

Adjusted pooled estimatec


Functional status

1

Hedges' g

0.11 (-0.22 to 0.45)

0.50

0.009

79%

0

0.11 (-0.22 to 0.45)

3 [19,20,28,29]

3

0.07 (-0.11 to 0.26)

0.44

0.006

73%

0

0.07 (-0.11 to 0.26)

5 [19,20,28,29,31,32]

6

0.09 (-0.14 to 0.33)

0.41

0.034

63%

1

0.15 (-0.07 to 0.37)

5 [20,26,28-30,32]

12

0.01 (-0.15 to 0.16)

0.94

0.15

44%

0

0.01 (-0.15 to 0.16)

4 [19,23,28,29,32]

Length of stay

Weighted mean difference

-0.35 (-1.24 to 0.55)

0.45

0.75

0%

1

-0.34 (-1.24 to 0.56)

9 [19-21,24,25,27-32]

Mortality

1

Relative risk

0.66 (0.40 to 1.09)

0.10

0.46

0%

NA

NA

2 [19,20]

3/4

0.72 (0.44 to 1.17)

0.19

0.12

47%

0

0.72 (0.44 to 1.17)

5[19-22,28,29]

6

0.66 (0.52 to 0.85)

0.001

0.37

0%

2

0.73 (0.52 to 1.02)

6 [20-22,24,27-30]

8

0.51 (0.31 to 0.85)

0.009

0.39

0%

NA

NA

2 [21,22]

12

0.98 (0.86 to 1.11)

0.75

0.52

0%

2

1.01 (0.87 to 1.16)

9 [19,21-23,26,28-32]

Readmission

1

Relative risk

0.65 (0.25 to 1.67)

0.37

0.59

0%

NA

NA

2 [19,28,29]

3

0.93 (0.82 to 1.04)

0.18

0.74

0%

2

0.94 (0.84 to 1.05)

4 [19,22,26,28,29]

6

0.88 (0.40 to 1.96)

0.76

0.001

86%

0

0.88 (0.40 to 1.96)

3 [24,27-30]

12

0.99 (0.83 to 1.19)

0.94

0.34

12%

2

1.09 (0.87 to 1.36)

5 [19,22,23,28,32]


CI: confidence interval; NA: not applicable. aI squared statistic: values less than 25% indicate low, 25% to 50% indicate moderate, and greater than 50% indicate high heterogeneity. bThere must be a least three studies published to run publication bias procedure. cAdjusted pooled estimate according to Duval and Tweedie's trim-and-fill analysis.

Deschodt et al. BMC Medicine 2013 11:48   doi:10.1186/1741-7015-11-48

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