Table 1

Baseline characteristics of cohort participants according to the number of traditional and non-traditional positive health behaviors.

Number of positive health behaviors

0 to 1

2

3

4

5

6


N

91

257

604

1,084

1,029

400

Age, yr

76.5 ± 8.7

75.6 ± 8.9

73.2 ± 8.1

71.3 ± 7.7

70.7 ± 7.5

70.1 ± 7.0

Educational attainment

No education

60.6

61.0

58.9

49.5

48.6

45.5

Primary

28.9

27.9

28.8

36.6

38.7

38.8

Secondary or higher

10.5

11.1

12.3

13.9

12.7

15.6

Occupational status

Employed

10.2

15.1

11.9

10.8

10.4

10.1

Unemployed

0

0

0.8

0.6

0.9

0.4

Retired

88.3

82.8

85.8

85.2

86.6

88.2

Househusband/housewife

1.5

2.1

1.6

3.5

2.1

1.3

Alcohol intake, g/d

26.8 ± 71.9

17.8 ± 36.2

19.0 ± 43.6

15.3 ± 40.0

11.3 ± 28.5

9.8 ± 23.9

Former drinking

24.5

23.6

13.6

12.7

7.4

9.7

Extreme sleep durations a

5.5

3.2

2.8

2.1

1.4

0

Body mass index, kg/m2

28.1 ± 5.1

28.6 ± 5.2

28.9 ± 4.9

28.9 ± 4.2

28.9 ± 4.5

28.8 ± 4.0

Waist circumference, cm

98.9 ± 11.8

99.6 ± 12.7

100.2 ± 14.0

99.2 ± 11.3

97.9 ± 11.3

98.0 ± 11.6

Systolic blood pressure, mm Hg

145.4 ± 21.7

145.5 ± 21.9

144.7 ± 20.4

142.8 ± 18.7

142.1 ± 18.6

143.4 ± 18.5

Hypercholesterolemia

12.6

25.6

24.8

25.0

25.9

27.1

Comorbidities

Coronary heart disease

10.5

8.7

4.1

2.8

1.2

1.8

Stroke

9.6

9.0

8.2

4.9

5.0

3.9

Diabetes mellitus

19.0

17.9

15.5

14.3

14.4

13.3

Hip fracture

8.3

4.6

2.8

2.5

2.3

0.4

Cancer

1.6

3.0

2.9

1.4

1.6

1.5


Values are mean ± SD or %. Participants scored one point for each health behavior: never smoking or quitting tobacco >15 years; being very/moderately physically active; healthy diet score ≥median in the cohort; sleeping 7 to 8 h/d; sitting time <8 h/d; interaction with friends daily. a Sleeping ≤3 or ≥16 h/day.

Martínez-Gómez et al. BMC Medicine 2013 11:47   doi:10.1186/1741-7015-11-47

Open Data