Table 7

Summary of all tests evaluated
Criteria Evaluated test Reference standard TP FP FN TN Sensitivity Specificity PPV NPV LR+ LR- Prevalence Post-test + prevalence Post-test - prevalence
Symptoms
Kim et al. [24] NCCP with atypical GERD symptoms Endoscopy (LA classification) and/or 24 h pH-metry (>4%, pH <4 3 20 5 6 0.38 0.23 0.13 0.55 0.49 2.71 24 13 45
Kim et al. [24] NCCP with typical GERD symptoms Endoscopy (LA classification) and/or 24 h pH-metry (>4%, pH <4 11 2 5 6 0.69 0.75 0.85 0.55 2.75 0.42 67 85 45
Mousavi et al. [27] NCCP with typical GERD symptoms GERD if two tests positive: endoscopy (Hentzel-Dent), Bernstein test, omeprazole trial 11 5 24 38 0.31 0.88 0.69 0.61 2.70 0.78 45 69 39
Mousavi et al. [27] NCCP relieved by antacid GERD if two tests positive: endoscopy (Hentzel-Dent), Bernstein test, omeprazole trial 15 36 20 7 0.43 0.16 0.68 0.64 0.51 3.51 45 29 74
Mousavi et al. [27] NCCP and heartburn in history GERD if two tests positive: endoscopy (Hentzel-Dent), Bernstein test, omeprazole trial 14 8 21 35 0.40 0.81 0.64 0.63 2.15 0.74 45 64 38
Mousavi et al. [27] NCCP and regurgitation in history GERD if two tests positive: endoscopy (Hentzel-Dent), Bernstein test, omeprazole trial 17 7 18 36 0.49 0.84 0.71 0.67 2.98 0.61 45 71 33
Hong et al. [25] NCCP Manometry (Specler 2001 criteria) and/or 24 h pH-metry (>4% pH <4) 72 114 128 148 0.36 0.56 0.39 0.54 0.83 1.13 43 39 46
Hong et al. [25] Control: dysphagia Manometry (Specler 2001 criteria) and/or 24 h pH-metry (>4% pH <4) 27 26 181 228 0.13 0.90 0.51 0.56 1.27 0.97 45 51 44
Hong et al. [25] Control: GERD-typical symptoms Manometry (Specler 2001 criteria) and/or 24 h pH-metry (>4% pH <4) 53 53 151 205 0.26 0.79 0.50 0.58 1.26 0.93 44 50 42
Hong et al. [25] Dysphagia Manometry 16 37 84 325 0.16 0.90 0.30 0.80 1.57 0.94 22 30 21
Hong et al. [25] Dysphagia 24 h pH-metry 4 49 63 346 0.06 0.88 0.08 0.85 0.48 1.07 15 8 15
Hong et al. [25] Dysphagia Manometry and 24 h pH-metry 7 46 23 386 0.23 0.89 0.13 0.94 2.19 0.86 7 13 6
Hong et al. [25] NCCP Manometry 34 152 63 213 0.35 0.58 0.18 0.77 0.84 1.11 21 18 23
Hong et al. [25] NCCP 24 h pH-metry 29 157 43 233 0.40 0.60 0.16 0.60 1.00 1.00 16 16 16
Hong et al. [25] NCCP Manometry and 24 h pH-metry 9 177 22 254 0.29 0.59 0.05 0.92 0.71 1.20 7 5 8
Hong et al. [25] GERD-typical symptoms Manometry 19 87 81 275 0.19 0.76 0.18 0.77 0.79 1.07 22 18 23
Hong et al. [25] GERD-typical symptoms 24 h pH-metry 23 83 49 307 0.32 0.79 0.22 0.86 1.50 0.86 16 22 14
Hong et al. [25] GERD-typical symptoms Manometry and 24 h pH-metry 11 95 20 336 0.35 0.78 0.10 0.94 1.61 0.83 7 10 6
Netzer et al. [26] NCCP Manometry and/or 24 h pH-metry (>10.5% pH <4) 31 14 223 35 0.12 0.71 0.69 0.14 0.43 1.23 84 69 86
Netzer et al. [26] Control: GERD-typical symptoms Manometry and/or 24 h pH-metry (>10.5% pH <4) 127 16 127 33 0.50 0.67 0.89 0.21 1.53 0.74 84 89 79
Netzer et al. [26] Control: dysphagia Manometry and/or 24 h pH-metry (>10.5% pH <4) 48 8 206 41 0.19 0.84 0.86 0.17 1.16 0.97 84 86 83
Netzer et al. [26] GERD-typical symptoms 24 h pH-metry 115 28 49 111 0.70 0.80 0.80 0.69 3.48 0.37 54 80 31
Netzer et al. [26] Dysphagia 24 h pH-metry 6 50 158 89 0.04 0.64 0.11 0.36 0.10 1.50 54 11 64
Netzer et al. [26] NCCP 24 h pH-metry 24 21 140 118 0.15 0.85 0.53 0.46 0.97 1.01 54 53 54
PPI trial
Dickman et al. [31] Rabeprazole 20 mg twice a day for 1 week SIS ≥50% Endoscopy (Hentzel-Dent grades) and/or 24 h pH-metry (>4.2% pH <4) 12 2 4 17 0.75 0.89 0.86 0.81 7.13 0.28 46 86 19
Dickman et al. [31] Placebo for 1 week Endoscopy (Hentzel-Dent grades) and/or 24 h pH-metry (>4.2% pH <4) 3 4 13 15 0.19 0.79 0.43 0.54 0.89 1.03 46 43 46
Bautista et al. [32] Lansoprazole 60 mg AM, 30 mg PM for 1 week SIS ≥50% Endoscopy (Hentzel-Dent grades) and/or 24 h pH-metry (>4.2% pH <4) 14 2 4 20 0.78 0.91 0.875 0.833 8.56 0.24 45 88 17
Bautista et al. [32] Lansoprazole 60 mg AM, 30 mg PM for 1 week SIS ≥65% Endoscopy (Hentzel-Dent grades) and/or 24 h pH-metry (>4.2% pH <4) 15 1 3 21 0.83 0.95 0.93 0.88 18.33 0.17 45 94 13
Bautista et al. [32] Placebo for 1 week Endoscopy (Hentzel-Dent grades) and/or 24 h pH-metry (>4.2% pH <4) 4 8 14 14 0.22 0.64 0.33 0.50 0.61 1.22 45 33 50
Fass et al. [33] Omeprazole 40 mg AM, 20 mg PM for 1 week SIS ≥50% Endoscopy (Hentzel-Dent grades) and/or 24 h pH-metry (>4.2% pH <4) 18 2 5 12 0.78 0.86 0.90 0.71 5.48 0.25 62 90 29
Fass et al. [33] Placebo for 1 week Endoscopy (Hentzel-Dent grades) and/or 24 h pH-metry (>4.2% pH <4) 5 1 18 13 0.22 0.93 0.83 0.42 3.04 0.84 62 83 58
Pandak et al. [34] Omeprazole 40 mg twice a day for 2 weeks SIS ≥50% Endoscopy and/or 24 h pH-metry (>4.2% pH <4) 18 6 2 12 0.90 0.67 0.75 0.86 2.70 0.15 53 75 14
Pandak et al. [34] Placebo for 2 weeks SIS ≥50% Endoscopy and/or 24 h pH-metry (>4.2% pH <4) 1 3 19 15 0.05 0.83 0.25 0.44 0.30 1.14 53 25 56
Kim et al. [35] NCCP GERD-related (TP) vs NCCP non-GERD-related (TN): rabeprazole for 1 week SIS ≥50% Endoscopy (LA classification) and/or 24 h pH-metry (>4.0 pH <4) 8 6 8 20 0.50 0.77 0.57 0.71 2.17 0.65 38 57 29
Kim et al. [35] NCCP GERD-related (TP) vs NCCP non-GERD-related (TN): rabeprazole for 2 weeks SIS ≥50% Endoscopy (LA classification) and/or 24 h pH-metry (>4.0 pH <4) 13 7 3 19 0.81 0.73 0.65 0.86 3.02 0.26 38 65 14
Xia et al. [36] Lansoprazole 30 mg once a day for 4 weeks SIS ≥50% 24 h pH-metry (De Meester pH <4, 7.5 s) 11 8 1 16 0.92 0.67 0.58 0.94 2.75 0.13 33 58 6
Xia et al. [36] Placebo for 4 weeks SIS ≥50% 24 h pH-metry (De Meester pH <4, 7.5 s) 4 7 8 13 0.33 0.65 0.36 0.62 0.95 1.03 38 36 38
Kushnir et al. [37] High-degree response on PPI (not specified) 24 pH-metry (≥4%, pH <4) 40 18 12 28 0.77 0.61 0.69 0.70 1.97 0.38 53 69 30
Kushnir et al. [37] High-degree response on PPI Positive Ghillibert probability estimate (GPE) 21 37 5 35 0.81 0.49 0.36 0.88 1.57 0.40 27 36 12
Kushnir et al. [37] High-degree response on PPI Association of chest pain with pH <4 in reference standard: SI ≥50% 19 39 6 34 0.76 0.47 0.33 0.85 1.42 0.52 26 33 15
Kushnir et al. [37] High-degree response on PPI 24 h pH-metry and positive GPE 15 43 2 38 0.88 0.47 0.26 0.95 1.66 0.25 17 26 5
Kushnir et al. [37] High-degree response on PPI 24 h pH-metry and SI ≥50% 16 42 2 38 0.89 0.48 0.28 0.95 1.69 0.23 18 28 5
Kushnir et al. [37] High-degree response on PPI 24 h pH-metry and SI ≥50% and positive GPE 14 44 1 39 0.93 0.47 0.24 0.98 1.76 0.14 15 24 2
Symptom index
Singh et al. [28] Association of chest pain with pH <4 in reference standard: SI ≥50% Endoscopy and/or 24 h pH-metry (De Meester >5.5% pH <4) 19 38 15 81 0.56 0.68 0.33 0.84 1.75 0.65 22 33 16
Singh et al. [28] Association of chest pain with pH <4 in reference standard: SI ≥25% Endoscopy and/or 24 h pH-metry (De Meester >5.5% pH <4) 23 59 11 60 0.68 0.50 0.28 0.85 1.36 0.64 22 28 15
Singh et al. [28] Association of chest pain with pH <4 in reference standard: SI ≥75% Endoscopy and/or 24 h pH-metry (De Meester >5.5% pH <4) 8 5 26 114 0.24 0.96 0.62 0.81 5.60 0.80 22 62 19
Singh et al. [28] Association of heartburn with pH <4 in reference standard: Symptom Index (SI) ≥50% Endoscopy and/or 24 h pH-metry (De Meester >5.5% pH <4) 40 32 3 78 0.93 0.71 0.56 0.96 3.20 0.10 28 56 4
Singh et al. [28] Association of heartburn with pH <4 in reference standard: SI ≥25% Endoscopy and/or 24 h pH-metry (De Meester >5.5% pH <4) 41 40 2 70 0.95 0.64 0.51 0.97 2.62 0.07 28 51 3
Singh et al. [28] Association of heartburn with pH <4 in reference standard: SI ≥75% Endoscopy and/or 24 h pH-metry (De Meester >5.5% pH <4) 25 25 9 94 0.74 0.79 0.50 0.91 3.50 0.34 28 58 12
Ho et al. [29] Association of chest pain with pH <4 in reference standard: SI >50% 24 h pH-metry (>4% pH <4, 4 s) 3 9 11 38 0.21 0.81 0.25 0.78 1.12 0.97 23 25 22
Lam et al. [30] Association of chest pain with pH <4 in reference standard: SI ≥75% 24 h pH-metry (execution in acute stage) 13 0 15 13 0.46 1.00 1.00 0.48 13.03 0.54 68 97 54
Others
Lacima et al. [38] 24 h-manometry (pH <4) Manometry during hospital stay 18 24 18 30 0.50 0.56 0.43 0.56 1.13 0.90 40 43 38
Provocation test
Cooke et al. [39] NCCP during exertional pH-metry 24 h pH-metry (5.5% pH <4 for 10 s) 4 0 15 31 0.21 1.00 1.00 0.67 14.40 0.79 38 90 33
Cooke et al. [39] Control group: CVD with angina: exertional pH-metry 24 h pH-metry (5.5% pH <4 for 10 s) 1 1 2 12 0.33 0.92 0.50 0.86 4.33 0.72 19 50 14
Bovero et al. [40] NCCP with normal ECG during exertional pH-metry 24 h pH-metry (De Meester criteria: >4.5% pH <4)) 17 1 29 20 0.37 0.95 0.94 0.41 7.76 0.66 69 94 59
Bovero et al. [40] NCCP at rest: NCCP with normal ECG during exertional pH-metry 24 h pH-metry (De Meester criteria: >4.5% pH <4)) 11 1 23 11 0.32 0.92 0.92 0.32 3.88 0.74 74 92 68
Bovero et al. [40] NCCP exertion/mixed: NCCP with normal ECG during exertional pH-metry 24 h pH-metry (De Meester criteria: >4.5% pH <4)) 6 0 6 9 0.50 1.00 1.00 0.60 10.00 0.50 57 93 40
Bovero et al. [40] 24 h pH-metry (De Meester criteria: >4.5% pH <4)) NCCP with normal ECG during exertional pH-metry 17 29 1 20 0.94 0.41 0.37 0.95 1.60 0.14 27 37 5
Bovero et al. [40] 24 h pH-metry (De Meester criteria: >4.5% pH <4)) NCCP at rest: NCCP with normal ECG during exertional pH-metry 11 23 1 11 0.92 0.32 0.32 0.92 1.36 0.26 26 32 8
Romand et al. [41] NCCP: pH <4 for 10 s during exertional pH-metry 24 h pH-metry (De Meester criteria: >4.5% pH <4)) 7 14 3 19 0.70 0.58 0.33 0.86 1.65 0.52 23 33 14
Abrahao et al. [42] NCCP reproducible during balloon distension Endoscopy (Savary-Miller) and/or manometry and/or pH-metry (De Meester criteria: >4.5% pH <4 14 1 21 4 0.40 0.80 0.93 0.16 2.00 0.75 88 93 84
Abrahao et al. [42] NCCP reproducible during Tensilon test Endoscopy (Savary-Miller) and/or manometry and/or pH-metry (De Meester criteria: >4.5% pH <4 6 2 29 3 0.17 0.60 0.75 0.09 0.43 1.38 88 75 91
Abrahao et al. [42] NCCP reproducible during Bernstein test Endoscopy (Savary-Miller) and/or manometry and/or pH-metry (De Meester criteria: >4.5% pH <4 9 1 26 4 0.26 0.80 0.90 0.13 1.29 0.93 88 90 87
Abrahao et al. [42] Tensilon and Bernstein Test and balloon distension (+ if 1 test +) Endoscopy (Savary-Miller) and/or manometry and/or pH-metry (De Meester criteria: >4.5% pH <4 20 3 15 2 0.57 0.40 0.87 0.12 0.95 1.07 88 87 88
Abrahao et al. [42] NCCP reproducible during Tensilon test Endoscopy (Savary-Miller) and/or pH-metry (De Meester criteria: >4.5% pH <4 6 2 26 6 0.19 0.75 0.75 0.19 0.75 1.08 80 75 81
Abrahao et al. [42] NCCP reproducible during Bernstein test Endoscopy (Savary-Miller) and/or pH-metry (De Meester criteria: >4.5% pH <4 8 2 24 6 0.25 0.75 0.80 0.20 1.00 1.00 80 80 80
Abrahao et al. [42] NCCP reproducible during balloon distension Endoscopy (Savary-Miller) and/or pH-metry (De Meester criteria: >4.5% pH <4 13 2 19 6 0.41 0.75 0.87 0.24 1.63 0.79 80 87 76
Abrahao et al. [42] Tensilon and Bernstein Test and balloon distension (+ if 1 test +) Endoscopy (Savary-Miller) and/or pH-metry (De Meester criteria: >4.5% pH <4 18 5 14 3 0.56 0.38 0.78 0.18 0.90 1.17 80 78 82
Ho et al. [29] NCCP reproducible during Bernstein test Endoscopy 4 7 3 56 0.57 0.89 0.36 0.95 5.14 0.48 10 36 5
Eosinophilia
Achem et al. [43] Current GERD symptoms Esophageal biopsies 10 26 14 121 0.42 0.82 0.28 0.90 2.36 0.71 14 28 10
Achem et al. [43] Male gender or current GERD symptoms Esophageal biopsies 18 69 6 78 0.75 0.53 0.21 0.93 1.60 0.47 14 21 7
Achem et al. [43] Male gender or any abnormal EoE endoscopic finding Esophageal biopsies 23 79 1 68 0.96 0.46 0.23 0.99 1.78 0.09 14 23 1
Achem et al. [43] Current GERD symptoms or any abnormal EoE endoscopic finding Esophageal biopsies 20 63 4 84 0.83 0.57 0.24 0.96 1.94 0.29 14 24 5
Musculoskeletal
Stochkendahl et al. [44] Biomechanical dysfunction Standardized examination protocol 112 120 0 70 1.00 0.37 0.48 1.00 1.58 0.00 37 48 0
Stochkendahl et al. [44] ≥3 of 5 overall palpation findings Standardized examination protocol 111 124 1 66 0.99 0.35 0.47 0.99 1.52 0.03 37 47 1
Bosner et al. [45] Chest wall symptom (CWS) score: localized muscle tension, stinging pain, pain reproducible by palpation, absence of cough, cut-off test negative 0 to 1 points Interdisciplinary consensus: cardiologist, GP, research associate (based on reviewed baseline, follow-up data) 506 318 59 329 0.90 0.51 0.66 0.82 1.82 0.20 47 61 15
Bosner et al. [45] CWS score: localized muscle tension, stinging pain, pain reproducible by palpation, absence of cough, cut-off test negative 0 to 2 points Interdisciplinary consensus 357 135 208 512 0.63 0.79 0.76 0.67 3.02 0.47 47 72 29
Stochkendahl et al. [44] Anterior chest wall tenderness Standardized examination protocol 110 134 2 56 0.98 0.29 0.45 0.97 1.39 0.06 37 45 3
Stochkendahl et al. [44] Angina pectoris (uncertain or negative) Standardized examination protocol 109 147 3 43 0.97 0.23 0.43 0.94 1.26 0.12 37 43 7
Stochkendahl et al. [44] Pain worse on movement of torso Standardized examination protocol 32 16 80 174 0.29 0.92 0.67 0.69 3.39 0.78 37 67 32
Bosner et al. [45] Pain worse with movement Interdisciplinary consensus 221 119 344 528 0.39 0.82 0.65 0.61 2.13 0.75 47 65 40
Stochkendahl et al. [44] Positive/possible belief in pain origin from muscle/joints Standardized examination protocol 108 156 4 34 0.96 0.18 0.41 0.90 1.17 0.20 37 41 11
Stochkendahl et al. [44] Pain relief on pain medication Standardized examination protocol 25 13 87 177 0.22 0.93 0.66 0.67 3.26 0.83 37 66 33
Bosner et al. [45] Pain reproducible by palpation Interdisciplinary consensus 351 193 214 454 0.62 0.70 0.68 0.64 2.08 0.54 47 65 32
Stochkendahl et al. [44] Paraspinal tenderness Standardized examination protocol 90 112 22 78 0.80 0.41 0.45 0.78 1.36 0.48 37 45 22
Bosner et al. [45] Localized muscle tension Interdisciplinary consensus 346 164 219 483 0.61 0.75 0.71 0.66 2.41 0.52 47 68 32
Stochkendahl et al. [44] Chest pain present now Standardized examination protocol 92 116 20 74 0.82 0.39 0.44 0.79 1.35 0.46 37 44 21
Bosner et al. [45] Pain now Interdisciplinary consensus 328 327 237 320 0.58 0.49 0.50 0.57 1.15 0.85 47 50 43
Stochkendahl et al. [44] Pain debut not during a meal Standardized examination protocol 109 168 3 22 0.97 0.12 0.39 0.88 1.10 0.23 37 39 12
Stochkendahl et al. [44] Sharp pain Standardized examination protocol 39 35 73 155 0.35 0.82 0.53 0.68 1.89 0.80 37 53 32
Bosner et al. [45] Stinging pain Interdisciplinary consensus 299 184 266 463 0.53 0.72 0.62 0.63 1.87 0.66 47 62 37
Stochkendahl et al. [44] Hard physical exercise at least once a week Standardized examination protocol 42 60 70 130 0.38 0.68 0.41 0.65 1.19 0.91 37 41 35
Stochkendahl et al. [44] Pain not provoked during a meal Standardized examination protocol 109 170 3 20 0.97 0.11 0.39 0.87 1.09 0.25 37 39 13
Stochkendahl et al. [44] Not sudden debut Standardized examination protocol 53 31 59 159 0.47 0.84 0.63 0.73 2.90 0.63 37 63 27
Bosner et al. [45] Pain >24 h Interdisciplinary consensus 158 139 407 508 0.28 0.79 0.53 0.56 1.30 0.92 47 54 45
Stochkendahl et al. [44] Age ≤49 years old Standardized examination protocol 67 54 45 136 0.60 0.72 0.55 0.75 2.10 0.56 37 55 25
Bosner et al. [45] Pain mostly at noon time Interdisciplinary consensus 13 30 552 617 0.02 0.95 0.31 0.53 0.50 1.02 47 31 48
Bosner et al. [45] Cough Interdisciplinary consensus 31 129 534 518 0.06 0.80 0.19 0.49 0.28 1.18 47 20 51
Bosner et al. [45] Known IHD Interdisciplinary consensus 56 122 509 525 0.10 0.81 0.32 0.51 0.52 1.11 47 32 50
Bosner et al. [45] Pain worse with breathing Interdisciplinary consensus 138 123 427 524 0.24 0.81 0.53 0.55 1.28 0.93 47 53 45
Manchikanti et al. [46] Chronic thoracic pain: lidocaine injection Bupivacaine injection 22 14 _ _ 0.61 _
Psychiatric
Kuijpers et al. [47] Anxiety subscale of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-A score, cut-off ≥8) Diagnosis Anxiety disorders (Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (gold standard)) 195 71 3 75 0.98 0.51 0.73 0.96 2.03 0.03 58 73 4
Demiryoguran et al. [48] Palpitation Anxiety disorder: HADS-A score (cut-off ≥10) 18 25 31 80 0.37 0.76 0.42 0.72 1.54 0.83 31 41 27
Demiryoguran et al. [48] Fear of dying Anxiety disorder: HADS-A score (cut-off ≥10) 11 6 38 102 0.22 0.94 0.65 0.73 4.04 0.82 31 65 27
Demiryoguran et al. [48] Light-headedness, dizziness, faintness Anxiety disorder: HADS-A score (cut-off ≥10) 11 8 38 100 0.22 0.93 0.58 0.73 3.03 0.84 31 58 28
Demiryoguran et al. [48] Chills or hot flushes Anxiety disorder: HADS-A score (cut-off ≥10) 11 5 38 103 0.22 0.95 0.69 0.73 4.85 0.81 31 69 27
Demiryoguran et al. [48] Shortness of breath Anxiety disorder: HADS-A score (cut-off ≥10) 13 22 36 86 0.27 0.80 0.37 0.71 1.30 0.92 31 37 29
Demiryoguran et al. [48] Nausea or gastric discomfort Anxiety disorder: HADS-A score (cut-off ≥10) 9 10 40 98 0.18 0.91 0.47 0.71 1.98 0.90 31 47 29
Demiryoguran et al. [48] Diaphoresis Anxiety disorder: HADS-A score (cut-off ≥10) 19 12 30 96 0.39 0.89 0.61 0.76 3.49 0.69 31 61 24
Foldes-Busque et al. [49] The Panic Screening Score (derivation population) Panic disorder diagnosis (structured Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition DSM-IV (ADIS-IV)) 53 19 31 98 0.63 0.84 0.74 0.76 3.89 0.44 42 74 24
Foldes-Busque et al. [49] The Panic Screening Score (validation population) Panic disorder diagnosis (structured ADIS-IV) 69 27 61 148 0.53 0.85 0.72 0.71 3.44 0.55 43 72 29
Katerndahl et al. [51] GP diagnosis of panic disorder Panic disorder (structured clinical Interview of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, based on DSM-III-R) 2 2 26 21 0.07 0.91 0.50 0.45 0.82 1.02 55 50 55
Fleet et al. [50] Panic disorder diagnosis: formula including Agoraphobia Cognitions QA, Mobility Inventory for Agoraphobia, Zone 12 Dermatome Pain Map, Sensory McGill Pain QA, Gender, Zone 25 (Validation population) Panic Disorder (ADIS-R structured interview by psychologist) 32 41 17 122 0.65 0.75 0.44 0.88 2.60 0.46 23 44 12

Wertli et al.

Wertli et al. BMC Medicine 2013 11:239   doi:10.1186/1741-7015-11-239

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