Table 5

Summary of excluded studies during full-text review
Author Year Design Comments
Aanen 2008 cohort, prospective No diagnostic study. No NCCP. GERD, reproducibility of reflux symptoms only
Abbass 2009 randomised clinical trial No diagnostic study. No NCCP. General pain patients
Achem 1993 retrospective, review Prevalence of nutcracker esophagus in NCCP. For treatment outcome open label trial with small sample
Achem 1997 randomised, controlled trial No diagnostic study. GERD patients only received PPI
Achem 2000 review article Review article about atypical chest pain
Adams 2001 retrospective review no NCCP. Spiral CT in pulmonary embolism
Adamek 1995 cross-sectional study No reference test. Description of coexistence of motility disorders and pathologic acid reflux
Aikens 2001 cross-sectional study No diagnostic study, presence of fear in NCCP patients. Correlation of fear with symptoms
Aizawa 1993 cross-sectional study no NCCP, acetylcholine provocation test for coronary arterial spasm
Ajanovic 1999 cross-sectional study no NCCP. Pulmonary embolism
Aksglaede 2003 experimental Experimental. Small sample (n = 5) chest pain.
Alexander 1994 cross-sectional study Prevalence and nature of mental disorders in NCCP and IHD
Amarasiri 2010 cross-sectional study GERD patients not NCCP
Anzai 2000 cross-sectional study No reference test, coronary flow reserve with dopler in patients with no significant coronary stenosis
Armstrong 1992 review article Review article about atypical chest pain
Arnold 2009 randomised clinical trial No diagnostic study. Treatment outcome
Aufderheide 1996 validation Validation of ACI-TIPI probabilities for MI
Bak 1994 cohort, prospective No diagnostic study. Comparison of prevalence of findings
Balaban 1999 experimental No diagnostic study. Small sample (n = 10)
Baniukiewicz 1997 cross-sectional study No diagnostic study. Description of findings in upper GI studies
Barham 1997 observational No NCCP. Description of presence of esophageal spasm in patients undergoing upper GI studies
Barki 1996 cohort, prospective No diagnostic study. Description of clinical presentation in painful rip syndrome
Basseri 2011 experimental Experimental. No NCCP. Different techniques swallow studies
Bassotti 1998 cohort, retrospective No NCCP. Nutcracker esophagus and the symptoms and findings investigated.
Bassotti 1992 cohort, prospective No diagnostic study. Prevalence
Beck 1992 cross-sectional study No diagnostic study. Charasteristics of NCCP patients compared to general pain patients
Belleville 2010 cross-sectional study No diagnostic study. Characteristics of patients with panic disorders in the ER
Berkovich 2000 cohort, retrospective No NCCP
Bernstein 2002 validation GOLDmineR: improvement of a risk model
Berthelot 2005 cohort, retrospective No diagnostic study. Pain referral study after injection
Bjorksten 1999 cross-sectional study No patients, workers with muscoloskeletal complaints
Blatchford 1999 cross-sectional study No NCCP. Emergency medical admission rates
Borjesson 1998 cross-sectional study Small sample (n = 18), prevalence of esophageal findings
Borjesson 1998 non-randomised controlled trial No diagnostic study. Small sample size (n = 20 per group). Intervention = TENS
Bortolotti 2001 experimental No diagnostic study, small sample (n = 9)
Bortolotti 1997 randomised clinical trial No diagnostic study. L-Arginine in patients with NCCP. Small sample (n = 8)
Bovero 1993 cohort, prospective Duplicate of same study Bovero 1993 included in the analysis under different titel
Bovero 1993 cohort, prospective Duplicate of same study Bovero 1993 included in the analysis under different titel
Brims 2010 review article Review article about atypical chest pain
Broekaert 2006 experimental Experimental trial in volunteers (no patients, n = 10)
Brunse 2010 cohort, prospective No diagnostic study. Prevalence
Brusori 2001 cross-sectional study Mixed sample, diagnosis of esophageal dysmotility in fluoroscopy vs. Manometry
Budzynski 2010 cross-sectional study Mixed patients sample with significant and non significant coronary leasons not responding to PPI treatment
Bruyninckx 2009 cross-sectional study No diagnostic study. GP's reasons for referral
Cameron 2006 case series Case series, selected sample by gastroenterologist. Not all patients had all investigation. Small samples for each group
Cannon 1994 randomised clinical trial Treatment outcome (imipramine vs. placebo)
Carter 1997 review article Review article about atypical chest pain
Cremonini 2005 review article Systematic Review PPI
Castell 1998 Editorial Editorial
Chambers 1998 observational Small sample size: n = 23, SI in 7 patients not calculated
Cheung 2007 cross-sectional study No diagnostic study. Questionnaire to doctors to see what kind of patients they see, what diagnostic tests they use and how they treat.
Christenson 2004 cohort, prospective Chest discomfort inappropriately not diagnosed ACS. Different research question
Crichton 1997 experimental Experimental statistical rule out
Cossentino 2012 randomised clinical trial No diagnostic study. Baclofen in gastro-esophageal diseases
Dekel 2003 cohort, retrospective No diagnostic study. Prevalence of esophageal motility disorders.
Dekel 2004 Not randomised, not controlled trial PPI trial only 14 patients included (only GERD positive treated)
Deng 2009 cross-sectional study No NCCP. Combination between cardiac ischemia and esophageal spasms
De Vries 2006 cross-sectional study Mixed patient sample with cardiac and non-cardiac chest pain
Dickman 2007 cohort, prospective No diagnostic study. Prevalence of GI findings in NCCP vs. patients with GERD
Disla 1994 cohort, prospective No diagnostic study, prevalence
Domanovits 2002 cross-sectional study Rule out cardiovascular disease. No diagnostic study for NCCP
Ellis 1992 cohort, prospective No diagnostic study. Treatment outcome in patients with esophageal spasm
Elloway 1992 cross-sectional study provocative radionuclide esophagealNo comparison to reference test, radionuclide esophageal transit (P-RET) investigation, small sample (n = 30)
Elloway 1992 cross-sectional study Same study under different title
Erhardt 2002 Guideline Task force on the management of chest pain
Esayag 2008 retrospective review Pleuritic chest pain. No reference test, description of presentation and outcome
Esler 2001 randomized clinical trial Dissertation, same as following.
Esler 2003 randomized clinical trial Treatment intervention in NCCP. CBT in NCCP seems to reduce chest pain episodes
Fass 1999 cohort, prospective No diagnostic study. Treatment outcome study
Fleischmann 1997 cross-sectional study No NCCP. Echokardiographic findings in acute chest pain and health status
Fletcher 2011 cohort, prospective Sample size: 8 patients with NCCP
Fornari 2008 cohort, retrospective No NCCP. Only nutcracker esophagus investigated
Fournier 1993 cross-sectional study No NCCP. Ergovine test during coronary angiogram and induction of coronary spasm
Fournier 1993 cross-sectional study Same study under different titles
Foldes 2011 cross-sectional study No comparison of test with reference test. Prevalence of panic disorders
Frobert 1996 cross-sectional study No diagnostic study. Comparison of characteristics between NCCP with positive treadmill test compared to negative treadmill test.
Gentile 2003 cross-sectional study Patients with pneumococcal pneumonia. No reference test, description of presentation, microbiological findings and mortality
Gignoux 1993 experimental No diagnostic study, experimental study
Goehler 2011 experimental Simulation model of CT scan
Goodacre 2004 randomized clinical trial No diagnostic study. Comparison of treatments
Gustafsson 1997 non-randomised controlled trial Sample size: intravenous edrophonium chloride test in 16 patients
Ha 1998 cross-sectional study No only NCCP. Patients with suspected coronary artery spasm. Ergonovine provocation test and scintigrafic findings. Small sample (n = 26)
Hamm 2011 Guideline ESC Guidelines
Herbella 2009 cross-sectional study No NCCP. Presentation of GERD patients
Hess 2008 validation Diagnostic accuracy to exclude coronary artery disease
Hillis 2003 observational Correlation of predictors and long term outcome. No diagnostic study
Hick 1992 cohort, retrospective No diagnostic study. Comparison of characteristics
Hirano 2001 cross-sectional study No NCCP. Coronary artery spasm
Ho 2001 cross-sectional study No diagnostic study. Difference between cardiovascular disease and non-cardiovascular disease
Hobson 2006 experimental Experimental for pain threshold.
Hobson 2006 experimental Same study under different titels
Howarth 2003 cohort, prospective Ischemic heart disease and GERD
Hu 2000 experimental Experimental trial in volunteers
Hughes 2007 cohort, retrospective No diagnostic study. Risk factors for Reflux or NCCP
Hung 2010 review article Review article about atypical chest pain
Ilgen 2011 validation Diagnostic accuracy to exclude coronary artery disease
Jacobs 2007 Guideline executive summary of management patients with ischemic heart disease
Jerlock 2005 qualitative study No diagnostic study. Qualitative study
Johnston 1993 cohort, retrospective No diagnostic study, prevalence
Jones 1999 cross-sectional study Pleuritic chest pain. Review article
Kahrilas 2011 systematic review Systematic Review PPI Trial in NCCP, reference publication for included studies
Kao 1993 cross-sectional study No diagnostic study, prevalence
Karamanolis 2008 experimental Healthy volunteers
Karlson 1994 observational No diagnostic study. Prognosis and outcome after discharge for ER
Ke 1993 cohort, prospective No diagnostic study, prevalence of GERD in NCCP
Keefe 2011 randomised clinical trial No diagnostic study. Coping skills training, sertraline, placebo
Keogh 2004 cross-sectional study No diagnostic study. Presence of various psychological factors in the ER in cardiac vs. NCCP on cardiac chest pain
Kisley 1997 cohort, prospective No diagnostic study. Prognosis after discharge after first admission with acute chest pain
Klingerman 2011 cross-sectional study Rule out cardiovascular disease. No diagnostic study for NCCP
Klopocka 2005 cohort, prospective No diagnostic study. Only 24 patients with NCCP
Klopocka 2005 cohort, prospective Same study under different titles
Koop 2005 journal article GERD. No diagnostic study in NCCP
Kumarathurai 2008 cohort, prospective No diagnostic study.
Kushner 1992 cross-sectional study small sample: n = 27. Presence of panic disorders in relatives.
Lacy 2009 cross-sectional study Prevalence study
Lam 1994 cohort, prospective No diagnostic procedure. Only patients included that chest pain was reproduced during the investigation
Lanzarini 1994 cross-sectional study Description of findings in dobutamine stress echocardiography in patients with positive exercise stress test and negative coronar angiography including ergonovine stress test.
Lauenbjerg 1997 observational No diagnostic study. Long term prognosis in patients with NCCP of various etiologies
Lee 2011 randomised clinical trial Conference proceeding. No diagnostic study
Lee 2005 cross-sectional study Prevalence study
Lehtola 2010 randomised, controlled trial Treatment outcome (manipulation, acupuncture vs. placebo. No diagnostic study
Lessard 2012 Patients with NCCP with Panic disorders. Two different interventions, no diagnostic study
Lien 2011 cohort, prospective NCCP not investigated
Lin 2004 cross-sectional study No NCCP. GERD symptoms and underlying conditions. Differences between women and men
Liu 2006 cross-sectional study No NCCP patients. Correlation analysis between psychological factors and findings
Lopez Gaston 1994 cross-sectional study Only esophageal pain investigated not NCCP
Lopez Gaston 1994 cross-sectional study Same study under different titles
Lopez Gaston 1994 cross-sectional study Same study under different titles
Loten 2009 observational No diagnostic study. Adverse outcome / prognosis of mixed patient population
Lyer 2009 retrospective review Spontaneous pneumomediastinum. Presentation and findings. No diagnostic study
MacPherson 2007 cross-sectional study No diagnostic study. Survey of patients after ER diagnosis NCCP about interest in acupuncture
Maev 2007 randomised clinical trial Conference proceeding
Maev 2007 randomised clinical trial Same study under different titles
Makk 2000 experimental Experimental study. No diagnostic study. Comparison of acid infusion and cardiac vs. non-cardiac chest pain. Small sample
Manchikanti 2003 observational No NCCP. Medial branch blocks for musculoskeletal pain
Manterola 2004 cross-sectional study No diagnostic study. Clinical presentation of patients with NCCP
Martina 1997 cross-sectional study All patients presenting in primary care. NCCP not as subgroup investigated
Matthews 2005 Meta-analysis Meta-analysis for PPI-Trial
Mayou 1994 cohort, prospective No diagnostic study. Comparison of NCCP vs. IHD patients
Mayou 2002 cohort, prospective No diagnostic study. One year follow-up in comparison to cardiac chest pain. Comparison of costs to the CVD patients
Mearin 1998 cohort study, prospective No diagnostic study. Change of habits during manometry
Mehta 1995 experimental No reference test as “true positive” defined.
Mendelson 1997 cohort, prospective Reference test are cancer patients. Comparison of Szintigraphy for the diagnosis of costochondritis
Mitchell 2006 cross-sectional study Prevalence of risk factors and pretest probability
Miniati 1999 cross-sectional study no NCCP. Pulmonary embolism
Miniati 2001 cross-sectional study no NCCP. Pulmonary embolism
Miniati 2003 cross-sectional study no NCCP. Prediction model for pulmonary embolism
Mujica 2001 cohort, prospective No diagnostic study in patients. Healthy volunteers
Mulero 1999 cross-sectional study Small sample (n = 24). No reference test. Descriptive findings in SPECT
Munk 2008 cohort, prospective No diagnostic study. Risk of death in patients with unexplained chest pain
Nanbu 1997 cross-sectional study Focus on difference between IHD and NCCP patients. Valdity of the medical interview for patients with NCCP
Nasr 2010 experimental Experimental study.
Nasr 2010 experimental Same study under different titels
Nellemann 2000 experimental Small sample (n = 5 with chest pain)
Nevitt 1999 secondary analysis of an RCT No NCCP. Vertebral fracture
Nikolic 2010 cross-sectional study No diagnostic study. Comparison of NCCP to IHD patients
Nilsson 2003 cross-sectional study Prevalence of Diagnosis of IHD in primary care.
Okada 1993 cross-sectional study No NCCP. Provocation of myocardial ischemia by hyperventilation
Oliver 1999 cross-sectional study CT in acute non-cardiac chest pain. No reference. Description of diagnoses found.
Pandak 2002 cross-sectional study duplicate of the study included in the analysis
Panju 1996 observational No diagnostic study. Patients prognosis after discharge
Paterson 1993 cohort, prospective exclude, small sample
Paterson 1995 cross-sectional study No diagnostic study. Description of finding in balloon distention NCCP in comparison to other pain patients
Paterson 1996 cross-sectional study Not enough information to populate a two by two table. Small sample (n = 23)
Porter-Moffitt 2006 cross-sectional study Small sample (Chest pain n = 34). Comparison of findings to other pain diagnosis.
Rasmussen 2009 cohort, prospective No NCCP. Complex regional pain syndrome
Robertson 2008 cross-sectional study Comparison of psychological morbidity in cardiac vs. Non-cardiac chest pain
Rosano 1996 randomised clinical trial No diagnostic study. Treatment of 17-beta-estradiol patches compared to placebo on NCCP in postmenopausal women
Ratnaike 1993 retrospective review No diagnostic study. Audit for IHD
Rate 1999 experimental healthy volunteers
Rencoret 2006 cross-sectional study No diagnostic study. Prevalence of esophageal disorders in patients with NCCP compared to other GI diseases
Repasky 2005 validation ED chest pain pathway
Rokkas 1992 cross-sectional study Not enough information to populate the two by two table
Rose 1994 cohort, prospective No diagnostic study. Does esophageal testing prevent persistence of symptoms? No control group
Rose 1994 cohort, prospective Same study under different titles
Rosengren 2008 Editorial Editorial
Rousset 2011 retrospective review No NCCP. Catammenial pneumothorax and endometriosis-related pneumothorax
Ruigomez 2004 cohort study No diagnostic study. Description of risk factors, incidence and comorbidities
Sakata 1996 cross-sectional study No reference test. Description of homeostasis and fibrinolysis in patients with coronary artery spasm. Not sure only NCCP patients
Sakamoto 2011 cross-sectional study Acute chest pain, rule out aortic dissection or pulmonary embolism
Salles 2011 cohort, retrospective No diagnostic study: SAPHO syndrome, clinical characteristics.
Sanchis 2008 cross-sectional study clinical risk profile of patients with acute chest pain without ST-segment deviation or troponin elevation
Scarinci 1994 cohort, prospective No NCCP. Women with GERD clinical presentation
Schima 1992 cohort, prospective Small sample (n = 4 NCCP)
Schima 1992 cohort, prospective Same study under different titles
Schmidt 2002 cross-sectional study No NCCP. General pain patients
Schmulson 2004 review article Review article about atypical chest pain
Shahid 2005 cross-sectional study No diagnostic study. Prensentation of young adults with chest pain
Shapiro 2006 No NCCP patients. Functional heart burn (pH Man normal) vs. NERD (ph manometry pathologic) incl. psychometric profile).
Sharma 2010 experimental healthy volunteers
Shelby 2009 randomized clinical trial Same sample as 210 and 217. Description of psychological factors at baseline.
Sigurdsson 2009 retrospective review Retrospective analysis of lung biopsy. No NCCP group
Singh 1993 retrospective review duplicate of the included study
Smith 2000 retrospective review Feasibility study based on records in a chiropractic clinic.
Smout 1992 experimental experimental. Small sample (n = 10)
Sobralske 2005 review article Review article about atypical chest pain
Spencer 2006 observational No NCCP. GI patients long term outcome
Sporer 2007 cross-sectional study Rule out cardiovascular disease. No diagnostic study for NCCP
Stahl 1994 cohort, prospective Small sample (n = 13 NCCP patients)
Steurer 2010 Metaanalysis clinical value of diagnostic instruments to rule out IHD
Stochkendahl 2008 randomised clinical trial Study protocol
Stochkendahl 2012 randomised, controlled trial No diagnostic study. Treatment outcome
Stochkendahl 2012 randomised, controlled trial No diagnostic study. Same study as previous. Treatment outcome 1 year follow-up
Stollman 1997 cross-sectional study Small sample (n = 14 patients)
Taylor 2002 cross-sectional study Rule out strategy cardiovascular patients. No diagnostic study in NCCP
Taniguchi 2009 cross-sectional study Chest pain in asthma. Treatment response to bronchodilatators
Tew 1995 cross-sectional study No diagnostic study. Outcome cardiovascular patients
Tougas 2001 experimental Experimental. Autonomic reaction to acid infusion in NCCP patients (n = 28) compared to controls
Triadafilopoulos 1997 cohort, prospective GERD patients. Description of spectrum of patients. Only a few with NCCP
Tutuian 2006 cross-sectional study Not enough information to populate a two by two table in NCCP patients with esophageal spasm
Valdovinos 2004 experimental No reference test. pH Bravo- capsule. Safety, efficacy and experience in 11 patients
Van Kleef 1995 observational No diagnostic study. Intervention success comparison after radiofrequency lesion of the dorsal root ganglion
Van Peski-Oosterbaan 1998 cross-sectional study Survey about how people are interested in psychological treatment after discharge after cardiac unit admission. Mixed patients sample.
van Ravensteijn 2012 systematic review Diagnostic test efficacy in various pain patients
Varia 2000 randomised, controlled trial No diagnostic study. Comparison efficacy Sertraline vs. Placebo.
Vent 2010 journal article dysphagia cause of chest pain
Verdon 2010 observational Chest pain early diagnostic guess accuracy in GP’s
Vermeltfoort 2009 cross-sectional study Mixed patient sample with cardiac and non-cardiac chest pain
Volpicelli 2008 cohort, prospective Pleural sonography for the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism
Wang 2011 cross-sectional study Conference proceeding
Watkins 2011 journal article Diagnosis and management of community-acquired pneumonia
Weiner 2006 journal article Cardiac markers in low-risk patients. No study
Weingarten 1993 cross-sectional study No diagnostic study for NCCP. Reduction of length of stay by complying the guidelines
White 2011 cross-sectional study no diagnostic study. Prevalence
Wong 2002 cohort, prospective no comparison to a reference test. Descriptive information only.
Wulsin 2002 randomised clinical trial no diagnostic study. Treatment of paroxetine vs. usual care
Yelland 2010 review article Review article about atypical chest pain
Yu 1997 cross-sectional study Not enough information to populate a two by two table for symptom index and the presence of GERD
Zalar 1995 cross-sectional study Conference proceeding
Zarauza 2003 observational No diagnostic study. Follow-up after discharge
Zheng 2008 cross-sectional study Small sample (n = 27)
Zheng 2008 cross-sectional study Same study under different title

Wertli et al.

Wertli et al. BMC Medicine 2013 11:239   doi:10.1186/1741-7015-11-239

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