Table 1

Sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of participants according to hypnotic use at baseline
Hypnotic use
No N = 5,242 Yes N = 1,454
Variable n % n % Odds ratio [95% CI]a P
High level of educationb No 4,136 78.90 1,245 85.63 1 0.0006
Yes 1,106 21.10 209 14.37 0.75 [0.63;0.88]
Living alone Yes 1,610 30.71 605 41.61 1 0.06
No 3,632 69.29 849 58.39 0.88 [0.77;1.01]
Confinement No 5,025 95.86 1,314 90.37 1 <0.0001
Yes 217 4.14 140 9.63 1.90 [1.51;2.40]
Alcohol intake (g/day) <12 955 18.22 349 24.00 1 0.14
12 to 36 3,799 72.47 1,012 69.60 0.86 [0.75;1.00]
>36 488 9.31 93 6.40 0.92 [0.70;1.22]
Caffeine intake (mg/day) ≤125 1,310 24.99 423 29.09 1 0.007
125 to 375 3,103 59.19 836 57.50 0.83 [0.73;0.95]
>375 829 15.81 195 13.41 0.76 [0.62;0.92]
Smoking status Never 3,033 57.86 969 66.64 1 0.38
Past 1,901 36.26 402 27.65 0.99 [0.85;1.15]
Current 308 5.88 83 5.71 1.19 [0.92;1.55]
History of cardiovascular diseasec No 3,902 74.44 945 64.99 1 <0.0001
Yes 1,340 25.56 509 35.01 1.59 [1.40;1.81]
Respiratory disease No 4,945 94.33 1,364 93.81 1 0.35
Yes 297 5.67 90 6.19 1.13 [0.88;1.44]
Thyroid disease No 4,823 92.01 1,286 88.45 1 0.009
Yes 419 7.99 168 11.55 1.29 [1.07;1.57]
Depressive symptomatology No 4,295 81.93 897 61.69 1 <0.0001
Yes 947 18.07 557 38.31 2.76 [2.41;3.15]
Antidepressants intake No 5,081 96.93 1,196 82.26 1 <0.0001
Yes 161 3.07 258 17.74 6.32 [5.12;7.81]
Spielberger trait anxiety <43 3,688 70.35 715 49.17 1 <0.0001
≥43 1,554 29.65 739 50.83 2.33 [2.06;2.64]
Mini Mental State Examination Score ≥ 26 4,559 86.97 1,190 81.84 1 <0.0001
<26 683 13.03 264 18.16 1.40 [1.20;1.65]
Body mass index (kg/m2) Normal (<25) 2,477 47.25 747 51.38 1 0.41
Overweight (25 to 29) 2,106 40.18 515 35.42 0.92 [0.81;1.05]
Obese (≥30) 659 12.57 192 13.20 1.00 [0.83;1.20]
Hypertension No 2,175 41.49 538 37.00 1 0.08
Yes 3,067 58.51 916 63.00 1.12 [0.99;1.27]
Diabetes mellitus No 4,777 91.13 1,314 90.37 1 0.03
Yes 465 8.87 140 9.63 1.25 [1.02;1.54]
Hypercholesterolemia No 3,349 63.89 859 59.08 1 0.005
Yes 1,893 36.11 595 40.92 1.19 [1.05;1.34]
Snoring loudly (n = 5,972) Never/Rarely 3,021 64.30 863 67.74 1 0.63
Frequently/Often 1,677 35.70 411 32.26 0.97 [0.84;1.11]
Difficulties in initiating sleep Never/Rarely 3,760 71.73 641 44.09 1 <0.0001
Frequently/Often 1,482 28.27 813 55.91 2.85 [2.51;3.24]
Difficulties in maintaining sleep Never/Rarely 2,029 38.71 455 31.29 1 <0.0001
Frequently/Often 3,213 61.29 999 68.71 1.29 [1.14;1.47]
Early morning awakening Never/Rarely 3,565 68.01 740 50.89 1 <0.0001
Frequently/Often 1,677 31.99 714 49.11 1.85 [1.64;2.09]
Number of insomnia complaintsd 0 1,586 30.26 260 17.88 1 <0.0001
1 1,729 32.98 326 22.42 1.15 [0.96;1.38]
2 1,138 21.71 404 27.79 2.02 [1.70;2.41]
3 789 15.05 464 31.91 3.07 [2.56;3.68]
Excessive daytime sleepiness Never/Rarely 4,384 83.63 1,165 80.12 1 0.005
Frequently/Often 858 16.37 289 19.88 1.25 [1.07;1.47]

aAdjustment for center study, age and gender; buniversity level; chistory of cardiovascular disease (stroke or coronary heart disease); dnumber of insomnia complaints: difficulties in initiating sleep + difficulties in maintaining sleep + early morning awakening. CI, confidence interval.

Jaussent et al.

Jaussent et al. BMC Medicine 2013 11:212   doi:10.1186/1741-7015-11-212

Open Data