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RAMESES publication standards: realist syntheses

Geoff Wong1*, Trish Greenhalgh1, Gill Westhorp2, Jeanette Buckingham3 and Ray Pawson4

Author Affiliations

1 Centre for Primary Care and Public Health, Queen Mary University of London, 58 Turner Street, London E1 2AB, UK

2 Community Matters, P.O. Box 443, Mount Torrens, SA 5244, Australia

3 John W. Scott Health Sciences Library, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2R7, Canada

4 Department of Social Research Methodology, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK

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BMC Medicine 2013, 11:21  doi:10.1186/1741-7015-11-21

Published: 29 January 2013

Abstract

Background

There is growing interest in realist synthesis as an alternative systematic review method. This approach offers the potential to expand the knowledge base in policy-relevant areas -for example, by explaining the success, failure or mixed fortunes of complex interventions. No previous publication standards exist for reporting realist syntheses. This standard was developed as part of the RAMESES (Realist And MEta-narrative Evidence Syntheses: Evolving Standards) project. The project's aim is to produce preliminary publication standards for realist systematic reviews.

Methods

We (a) collated and summarized existing literature on the principles of good practice in realist syntheses; (b) considered the extent to which these principles had been followed by published syntheses, thereby identifying how rigor may be lost and how existing methods could be improved; (c) used a three-round online Delphi method with an interdisciplinary panel of national and international experts in evidence synthesis, realist research, policy and/or publishing to produce and iteratively refine a draft set of methodological steps and publication standards; (d) provided real-time support to ongoing realist syntheses and the open-access RAMESES online discussion list so as to capture problems and questions as they arose; and (e) synthesized expert input, evidence syntheses and real-time problem analysis into a definitive set of standards.

Results

We identified 35 published realist syntheses, provided real-time support to 9 on-going syntheses and captured questions raised in the RAMESES discussion list. Through analysis and discussion within the project team, we summarized the published literature and common questions and challenges into briefing materials for the Delphi panel, comprising 37 members. Within three rounds this panel had reached consensus on 19 key publication standards, with an overall response rate of 91%.

Conclusion

This project used multiple sources to develop and draw together evidence and expertise in realist synthesis. For each item we have included an explanation for why it is important and guidance on how it might be reported. Realist synthesis is a relatively new method for evidence synthesis and as experience and methodological developments occur, we anticipate that these standards will evolve to reflect further methodological developments. We hope that these standards will act as a resource that will contribute to improving the reporting of realist syntheses.

To encourage dissemination of the RAMESES publication standards, this article is co-published in the Journal of Advanced Nursing and is freely accessible on Wiley Online Library (http://www.wileyonlinelibrary.com/journal/jan webcite). Please see related article http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/11/20 webcite and http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/11/22 webcite

Keywords:
realist synthesis; realist review; publication standards