Table 1

Identification, seriousness, fatality and past episodes of cholera in endemic areas of three African settings
Category SE-DRC, n = 360 Western Kenya, n = 379 Zanzibar, n = 356
Overall % % %
Identification of illnessa*** 96.4 75.2 88.2
Seriousnessb*** 81.1 91.3 96.6
Expected fatal outcome without treatmentc*** 99.7 49.9 77.5
Past household episodes*** 44.4 22.4 15.5
Past personal episodes* 8.3 11.6 5.3
Site comparison Urban, % Rural, % P value Urban, % Rural, % P value Urban, % Rural, %
P value
Identification of illnessa 93.9 98.9 0.020 72.6 77.8 0.285 95.5 80.8 <0.001
Seriousnessb 85.6 76.7 0.030 91.6 91.0 0.832 95.0 98.3 0.084
Expected fatal outcome without treatmentc 99.4 100.0 0.317 60.0 39.7 <0.001 84.4 70.6 0.002
Past household episodes 52.2 36.7 0.004 27.4 17.5 0.044 6.7 24.3 <0.001
Past personal episodes 7.7 8.9 0.703 13.2 10.1 0.423 2.8 7.9 0.035
Gender comparison Female, % Male, % P value Female, % Male, % P value Female, % Male, %
P value
Identification of illnessa 97.8 95.0 0.170 78.8 71.5 0.122 88.3 88.1 >0.999
Seriousnessb 79.0 83.2 0.295 91.2 91.4 0.907 96.1 97.2 0.577
Expected fatal outcome without treatmentc 99.5 100.0 0.320 52.9 46.8 0.151 74.9 80.2 0.257
Past household episodes 43.1 45.8 0.563 15.5 29.6 0.003 12.9 18.1 0.172
Past personal episodes 7.8 8.9 0.680 8.3 15.1 0.053 3.4 7.3 0.104

‘Overall’: comparison between settings based on the χ2 test (identification of illness and personal episodes) and Kruskal-Wallis test (seriousness, fatality and household episodes), *P <0.05, ***P <0.001. ‘Site comparison’ and ‘Gender comparison’: figures in bold designate significant differences at P <0.05 based on the Fisher’s exact test (identification of illness and personal episodes) and Wilcoxon test (seriousness, fatality and household episodes). Data for Southeastern Democratic Republic of Congo (SE-DRC) in ‘Overall’ section from Merten et al. [31]. Data for western Kenya in ‘Site comparison’ section from Nyambedha et al. [28].

Data for Zanzibar in ‘Overall’ and ‘Site comparison’ sections from Schaetti et al. [27].

aIdentified as cholera in local language based on vignette.

bCoded as ‘very serious’.

cCoded as ‘usually fatal without treatment’.

Schaetti et al.

Schaetti et al. BMC Medicine 2013 11:206   doi:10.1186/1741-7015-11-206

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