Table 4

Effects of daily tobacco smoked on the components of MetS assessed by linear regression
Component Current smoking
Men Women
Light Moderate Heavy Light Moderate Heavy
SBP, mmHg
BMI <25 1.24 (0.46 to 2.03) 1.93 (1.10 to 2.76) 1.46 (−0.25 to 3.18) −0.64 (−1.25 to −0.03) 0.22 (−0.51 to 0.95) −0.01 (−1.73 to 1.71)
NS P<0.001 NS NS NS NS
BMI 25 to 30 −0.64 (−1.43 to 0.15) 1.59 (0.73 to 2.45) 0.21 (−1.30 to 1.72) −1.46 (−2.30 to −0.61) −0.06 (−1.05 to 0.92) −1.13 (−3.37 to 1.11)
NS P<0.001 NS P =0.001 NS NS
BMI ≥30 0.58 (−1.08 to 2.25) 0.65 (−1.02 to 2.31) 2.16 (−0.24 to 4.55) −0.93 (−2.39 to 0.53) −0.74 (−2.24 to 0.77) 2.04 (−0.83 to 4.91)
NS NS NS NS NS NS
DBP, mmHg
BMI <25 0.44 (−0.07 to 0.95) 0.94 (0.40 to 1.49) 1.68 (0.56 to 2.81) −0.08 (−0.46 to 0.30) 0.49 (0.04 to 0.94) 1.13 (0.06 to 2.19)
NS P =0.001 NS NS NS NS
BMI 25 to 30 −0.38 (−0.91 to 0.15) 0.66 (0.08 to 1.23) 0.49 (−0.51 to 1.50) −0.27 (−0.79 to 0.25) 0.56 (0.05 to 1.16) 0.66 (−0.72 to 2.04)
NS NS NS NS NS NS
BMI ≥30 −0.54 (−1.61 to 0.54) 0.35 (−0.71 to 1.42) 0.22 (−1.32 to 1.76) −0.24 (−1.12 to 0.65) −0.52 (−1.44 to 0.39) 0.86 (−0.88 to 2.59)
NS NS NS NS NS NS
HDL-C, mmol/l
BMI <25 −0.07 (−0.09 to −0.05) −0.13 (−0.15 to −0.11) −0.14 (−0.18 to −0.09) −0.06 (−0.08 to −0.05) −0.17 (−0.20 to −0.15) −0.21 (−0.26 to −0.16)
P<0.001 P<0.001 P<0.001 P<0.001 P<0.001 P<0.001
BMI 25 to 30 −0.04 (−0.06 to −0.02) −0.10 (−0.12 to −0.08) −0.13 (−0.16 to −0.09) −0.06 (−0.08 to −0.04) −0.17 (−0.20 to −0.15) −0.15 (−0.20 to −0.09)
P<0.001 P<0.001 P<0.001 P<0.001 P<0.001 P<0.001
BMI ≥30 −0.04 (−0.07 to 0.01) −0.10 (−0.13 to −0.07) −0.10 (−0.14 to −0.06) −0.08 (−0.12 to −0.05) −0.17 (−0.20 to −0.13) −0.20 (−0.26 to −0.14)
NS P<0.001 P<0.001 P<0.001 P<0.001 P<0.001
Triglycerides, mmol/la
BMI <25 0.13 (0.10 to 0.15) 0.26 (0.23 to 0.29) 0.29 (0.22 to 0.37) 0.08 (0.06 to 0.09) 0.18 (0.16 to 0.19) 0.26 (0.21 to 0.31)
P<0.001 P<0.001 P<0.001 P<0.001 P<0.001 P<0.001
BMI 25 to 30 0.16 (0.13 to 0.20) 0.30 (0.25 to 0.34) 0.40 (0.31 to 0.50) 0.11 (0.09 to 0.13) 0.21 (0.18 to 0.24) 0.33 (0.25 to 0.41)
P<0.001 P<0.001 P<0.001 P<0.001 P<0.001 P<0.001
BMI ≥30 0.14 (0.07 to 0.22) 0.32 (0.22 to 0.41) 0.35 (0.20 to 0.53) 0.11 (0.07 to 0.16) 0.26 (0.23 to 0.31) 0.33 (0.23 to 0.46)
NS P<0.001 P<0.001 P<0.001 P<0.001 P<0.001
Blood glucose, mmol/la
BMI <25 0.02 (0.01 to 0.04) 0.07 (0.04 to 0.10) 0.13 (0.05 to 0.21) −0.01 (−0.02 to 0.01) 0.05 (0.03 to 0.08) 0.15 (0.08 to 0.24)
NS P<0.001 NS NS NS P<0.001
BMI 25 to 30 0.01 (−0.02 to 0.03) 0.07 (0.03 to 0.11) 0.10 (0.03 to 0.16) −0.03 (−0.05 to −0.01) 0.06 (0.03 to 0.10) 0.06 (−0.01 to 0.13)
NS P =0.001 NS NS P<0.001 NS
BMI ≥30 0.01 (−0.06 to 0.10) 0.04 (−0.05 to 0.13) 0.10 (−0.05 to 0.30) −0.07 (−0.12 to −0.01) 0.05 (−0.01 to 0.13) 0.32 (0.17 to 0.50)
NS NS NS NS NS P<0.001
Waist circumference, cm
BMI <25 0.66 (0.27 to 1.05) 0.81 (0.39 to 1.23) 1.20 (0.34 to 2.06) 0.30 (−0.03 to 0.621) 0.83 (0.45 to 1.22) 1.18 (0.26 to 2.09)
P =0.001 P<0.001 NS NS P<0.001 NS
BMI 25 to 30 0.16 (−0.21 to 0.53) 1.53 (1.13 to 1.93) 1.99 (1.28 to 2.69) 0.74 (0.30 to 1.17) 1.75 (1.24 to 2.25) 1.61 (0.46 to 2.76)
NS P<0.001 P<0.001 P =0.001 P<0.001 NS
BMI ≥30 −0.97 (−2.05 to 0.11) −0.06 (−1.14 to 1.01) 2.44 (0.89 to 3.99) −0.04 (−1.10 to 1.01) 2.20 (1.10 to 3.29) 6.44 (4.37 to 8.51)
NS NS NS NS P<0.001 P<0.001
Apo A1, g/l
BMI <25 −0.02 (−0.04 to 0.00) −0.05 (−0.06 to −0.03) −0.04 (−0.08 to −0.00) −0.00 (−0.02 to 0.02) −0.06 (−0.08 to −0.04) −0.07 (−0.12 to −0.02)
NS P<0.001 NS NS P<0.001 NS
BMI 25 to 30 −0.02 (−0.03 to 0.00) −0.03 (−0.05 to −0.01) −0.04 (−0.07 to −0.01) −0.03 (−0.05 to −0.01) −0.07 (−0.09 to −0.04) −0.02 (−0.07 to 0.03)
NS P<0.001 NS NS P<0.001 NS
BMI ≥30 −0.02 (−0.05 to 0.02) −0.04 (−0.08 to −0.01) −0.03 (−0.07 to −0.02) −0.07 (−0.10 to −0.03) −0.09 (−0.13 to −0.06) −0.09 (−0.16 to −0.03)
NS NS NS P<0.001 P<0.001 NS
HDL-C/apoA1 ratio
BMI <25 −0.03 (−0.04 to −0.02) −0.06 (−0.07 to −0.05) −0.06 (−0.08 to −0.03) −0.03 (−0.04 to −0.03) −0.06 (−0.07 to −0.06) −0.09 (−0.11 to −0.06)
P<0.001 P<0.001 P<0.001 P<0.001 P<0.001 P<0.001
BMI 25 to 30 −0.02 (−0.03 to −0.01) −0.05 (−0.06 to −0.04) −0.06 (−0.08 to −0.05) −0.04 (−0.05 to −0.03) −0.06 (−0.07 to −0.05) −0.06 (−0.09 to −0.04)
P<0.001 P<0.001 P<0.001 P<0.001 P<0.001 P<0.001
BMI ≥30 −0.02 (−0.03 to 0.00) −0.04 (−0.06 to −0.03) −0.06 (−0.08 to −0.03) −0.01 (−0.03 to 0.01) −0.06 (−0.08 to −0.04) −0.06 (−0.1 to −0.03)
NS P<0.001 P<0.001 NS P<0.001 P =<0.001
Apo B, g/l
BMI <25 0.03 (0.01 to 0.05) 0.09 (0.07 to 0.11) 0.09 (0.05 to 0.13) 0.03 (0.02 to 0.04) 0.09 (0.08 to 0.11) 0.14 (0.11 to 0.18)
NS P<0.001 P<0.001 P<0.001 P<0.001 P<0.001
BMI 25 to 30 0.03 (0.02 to 0.05) 0.08 (0.06 to 0.10) 0.09 (0.06 to 0.12) 0.05 (0.03 to 0.06) 0.08 (0.06 to 0.10) 0.08 (0.04 to 0.13)
P<0.001 P<0.001 P<0.001 P<0.001 P<0.001 P<0.001
BMI ≥30 0.02 (−0.02 to 0.07) 0.06 (0.02 to 0.09) 0.07 (0.02 to 0.12) 0.06 (0.03 to 0.09) 0.09 (0.06 to 0.12) 0.12 (0.06 to 0.17)
NS NS NS P<0.001 P<0.001 P<0.001
LDL-C/apoB ratio
BMI <25 −0.11 (−0.14 to −0.08) −0.13 (−0.16 to −0.10) −0.09 (−0.15 to −0.03) −0.06 (−0.08 to −0.04) −0.07 (−0.10 to −0.05) −0.11 (−0.17 to −0.05)
P<0.001 P<0.001 NS P<0.001 P<0.001 P =0.001
BMI 25 to 30 −0.08 (−0.12 to −0.06) −0.12 (−0.15 to −0.09) −0.19 (−0.24 to −0.13) −0.05 (−0.07 to −0.02) −0.06 (−0.09 to −0.02) −0.13 (−0.20 to −0.06)
P<0.001 P<0.001 P<0.001 NS P =0.001 P<0.001
BMI ≥30 −0.06 (−0.12 to 0.01) −0.13 (−0.20 to −0.07) −0.14 (−0.23 to −0.05) −0.02 (−0.07 to 0.03) −0.07 (−0.13 to −0.02) −0.08 (−0.18 to 0.02)
NS P =<0.001 NS NS NS NS

Data are presented as mean effect size (95% confidence interval) per unit of component of metabolic syndrome or associated risk factor. Non-smokers within the same BMI class were taken as reference group. See Table 3 for number of subjects per group. Daily tobacco smoked: ≤10 g (light smoker), 11 to 20 g (moderate smoker), ≥20 g (heavy smoker). P values ≤0.001 are presented in bold.

aData are presented as geometric mean effect size (95% confidence interval) per unit of component of metabolic syndrome.

Apo apolipoprotein, BMI body mass index, BP blood pressure, DBP diastolic blood pressure, HDL-C high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, LDL-C low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, NS not significant, SBP systolic blood pressure, TG triglycerides.

Slagter et al.

Slagter et al. BMC Medicine 2013 11:195   doi:10.1186/1741-7015-11-195

Open Data