Table 3

Odds ratios (95% CI)a for vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency stratified by the median of vitamin D intake or season, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2001 to 2006
Magnesium intake, mg/day Controls, N Deficiency Insufficiency
N OR (95% CI) N OR (95% CI)
Vitamin D intake <308 (IU/day)
Q1 <225 1,359 834 1.00 1,218 1.00
Q2 225 to 310 940 328 0.79 (0.58 to 1.07) 650 0.89 (0.69 to 1.15)
Q3 311 to 419 697 184 0.64 (0.46 to 0.91) 426 0.78 (0.63 to 1.08)
Q4 ≥420 485 105 0.58 (0.35 to 0.97) 242 0.71 (0.47 to 1.07)
P for trend 0.01 <0.05
Vitamin D intake ≥308 (IU/day)
Q1 <225 390 42 1.00 144 1.00
Q2 225 to 310 793 64 1.09 (0.47 to 2.55) 257 0.94 (0.62 to 1.42)
Q3 311 to 419 1,040 61 0.76 (0.30 to 1.88) 332 1.19 (0.80 to 1.77)
Q4 ≥420 1,258 57 0.71 (0.24 to 2.11) 351 0.96 (0.60 to 1.55)
P for trend 0.97 0.67
P for interaction <0.001 <0.001
Non-vitamin D supplement user
Q1 <225 1,292 812 1.00 1,160 1.00
Q2 225 to 310 958 332 0.81 (0.57 to 1.14) 651 0.91 (0.70 to 1.18)
Q3 311 to 419 793 205 0.59 (0.40 to 0.88) 462 0.80 (0.63 to 1.02)
Q4 ≥420 661 124 0.60 (0.35 to 1.00) 329 0.81 (0.55 to 1.19)
P for trend 0.02 0.18
Vitamin D supplement user
Q1 <225 457 64 1.00 202 1.00
Q2 225 to 310 775 60 1.23 (0.59 to 2.56) 256 0.80 (0.53 to 1.20)
Q3 311 to 419 944 40 1.05 (0.41 to 1.68) 296 0.96 (0.65 to 1.41)
Q4 ≥420 1,082 38 0.91 (0.35 to 2.36) 264 0.73 (0.49 to 1.10)
P for trend 0.56 0.40
P for interaction 0.47 0.37
Winter and Southern latitude
Q1 <225 664 493 1.00 726 1.00
Q2 225 to 310 691 239 0.63 (0.47 to 0.85) 495 0.73 (0.57 to 0.92)
Q3 311 to 419 653 156 0.49 (0.30 to 0.78) 422 0.89 (0.74 to 1.07)
Q4 ≥420 680 111 0.54 (0.28 to 1.02) 337 0.57 (0.41 to 0.78)
P for trend 0.03 <0.01
Summer and Northern latitude
Q1 <225 1,085 383 1.00 636 1.00
Q2 225 to 310 1,042 153 0.95 (0.64 to 1.41) 412 0.91 (0.66 to 1.26)
Q3 311 to 419 1,084 89 0.61 (0.43 to 0.86) 336 0.73 (0.56 to 0.96)
Q4 ≥420 1,063 51 0.33 (0.20 to 0.55) 256 0.85 (0.61 to 1.19)
P for trend 0.001 0.35
P for interaction 0.55 0.21
Age <50 (years)
Q1 <225 862 465 1.00 726 1.00
Q2 225 to 310 821 209 0.74 (0.49 to 1.11) 495 0.83 (0.60 to 1.16)
Q3 311 to 419 831 150 0.63 (0.35 to 1.13) 422 0.84 (0.62 to 1.13)
Q4 ≥420 892 110 0.67 (0.32 to 1.42) 337 0.73 (0.50 to 1.08)
P for trend 0.26 0.15
Age ≥50 (years)
Q1 <225 1,085 383 1.00 636 1.00
Q2 225 to 310 1,042 153 0.85 (0.50 to 1.37) 412 0.86 (0.63 to 1.16)
Q3 311 to 419 1,084 89 0.43 (0.24 to 0.77) 336 0.79 (0.57 to 1.10)
Q4 ≥420 1,063 51 0.24 (0.11 to 0.49) 256 0.71 (0.46 to 1.10)
P for trend <0.01 0.81
P for interaction 0.07 0.41
Male
Q1 <225 712 283 1.00 519 1.00
Q2 225 to 310 854 164 0.64 (0.41 to 1.00) 466 1.12 (0.78 to 1.61)
Q3 311 to 419 995 143 0.39 (0.21 to 0.74) 439 0.90 (0.65 to 1.26)
Q4 ≥420 1,150 106 0.33 (0.16 to 0.69) 409 0.95 (0.59 to 1.52)
P for trend 0.001 0.54
Female
Q1 <225 1,037 593 1.00 843 1.00
Q2 225 to 310 879 228 0.85 (0.61 to 1.21) 441 0.71 (0.54 to 0.93)
Q3 311 to 419 742 102 0.63 (0.37 to 1.05) 319 0.83 (0.64 to 1.07)
Q4 ≥420 593 56 0.47 (0.25 to 0.87) 184 0.60 (0.43 to 0.82)
P for trend 0.16 0.14
P for interaction 0.11 0.17
Non-Hispanic Black
Q1 <225 181 530 1.00 442 1.00
Q2 225 to 310 163 181 0.51 (0.34 to 0.76) 229 0.74 (0.53 to 1.03)
Q3 311 to 419 110 115 0.44 (0.26 to 0.74) 175 0.53 (0.33 to 0.88)
Q4 ≥420 104 81 0.43 (0.27 to 0.68) 119 0.64 (0.39 to 1.04)
P for trend <0.001 <0.05
Non-Hispanic Caucasian and others
Q1 <225 1,568 346 1.00 920 1.00
Q2 225 to 310 1,570 212 0.91 (0.65 to 1.28) 678 0.86 (0.67 to 1.10)
Q3 311 to 419 1,627 130 0.66 (0.45 to 0.97) 583 0.87 (0.67 to 1.10)
Q4 ≥420 1,639 81 0.52 (0.29 to 0.95) 474 0.76 (0.58 to 0.99)
P for trend <0.05 0.27
P for interaction 0.305 0.82
BMI <25 (kg/m2)
Q1 <225 631 172 1.00 336 1.00
Q2 225 to 310 611 90 1.04 (0.51 to 2.12) 339 0.92 (0.61 to 1.40)
Q3 311 to 419 606 58 0.84 (0.40 to 1.76) 189 1.00 (0.70 to 1.44)
Q4 ≥420 608 41 0.51 (0.23 to 1.15) 162 0.77 (0.47 to 1.27)
P for trend 0.13 0.45
BMI ≥25 to <30 (kg/m2)
Q1 <225 605 232 1.00 448 1.00
Q2 225 to 310 632 106 0.71 (0.43 to 1.15) 316 0.77 (0.51 to 1.17)
Q3 311 to 419 661 75 0.50 (0.29 to 0.86) 266 0.63 (0.50 to 0.79)
Q4 ≥420 677 46 0.47 (0.22 to 1.01) 213 0.73 (0.48 to 1.13)
P for trend 0.02 0.06
BMI ≥30 (kg/m2)
Q1 <225 463 440 1.00 532 1.00
Q2 225 to 310 457 177 0.63 (0.35 to 1.14) 341 0.82 (0.63 to 1.06)
Q3 311 to 419 441 108 0.46 (0.24 to 0.88) 288 0.83 (0.59 to 1.15)
Q4 ≥420 424 69 0.42 (0.19 to 0.96) 202 0.63 (0.44 to 0.91)
P for trend 0.02 0.02
P for interaction 0.23 0.13
PTH <32 (pg/ml)
Q1 <225 322 63 1.00 179 1.00
Q2 225 to 310 369 39 0.42 (0.18 to 1.02) 109 0.72 (0.42 to 1.24)
Q3 311 to 419 363 21 0.17 (0.07 to 0.43) 107 0.77 (0.47 to 1.28)
Q4 ≥420 392 19 0.22 (0.07 to 0.73) 100 0.74 (0.38 to 1.42)
P for trend <0.01 0.46
PTH ≥32 to <46 (pg/ml)
Q1 <225 378 136 1.00 271 1.00
Q2 225 to 310 382 66 1.20 (0.66 to 2.21) 195 0.94 (0.73 to 1.22)
Q3 311 to 419 406 54 1.19 (0.53 to 2.66) 181 0.85 (0.59 to 1.23)
Q4 ≥420 414 33 1.11 (0.36 to 3.42) 131 0.79 (0.55 to 1.15)
P for trend 0.85 0.24
PTH ≥46 (pg/ml)
Q1 <225 390 375 1.00 447 1.00
Q2 225 to 310 382 157 0.73 (0.48 to 1.10) 297 0.93 (0.68 to 1.28)
Q3 311 to 419 382 95 0.52 (0.28 to 0.95) 209 0.78 (0.60 to 1.01)
Q4 ≥420 365 50 0.28 (0.14 to 0.53) 159 0.57 (0.35 to 0.92)
P for trend 0.01 0.41
P for interaction 0.73 0.53

Parathyroid hormone (PTH) laboratory results were only available from the NHANES 2003 to 2006.

aSurvey logistic regression models used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Models were adjusted for age, sex, body mass index (BMI), educational attainment, race, household income, smoking status, alcohol use, physical activity, month of blood collection, dietary intakes of total energy, total intake of calcium and vitamin D.

Deng et al.

Deng et al. BMC Medicine 2013 11:187   doi:10.1186/1741-7015-11-187

Open Data