Table 1

Descriptive characteristics of the study participants
Characteristic All Boys Girls P value
Group 2 to 6 years n = 994 n = 524 n = 470
Age, years 4.4 ± 0.8 4.5 ± 0.8 4.4 ± 0.8 0.226
Body mass, kg 18.3 ± 3.5 18.5 ± 3.5 18.0 ± 3.4 0.011
Height, cm 107.2 ± 7.4 107.8 ± 7.4 106.6 ± 7.5 0.011
BMI, kg/m2a 15.8 ± 1.7 15.9 ± 1.6 15.7 ± 1.8 0.170
Sum of two skinfolds, mma 16.5 ± 5.0 15.3 ±54.3 17.7 ± 5.3 <0.001b
DBP, mmHg 62.1 ± 6.2 62.0 ± 6.1 62.2 ± 6.3 0.617
SBP, mmHg 97.4 ± 8.4 97.7 ± 8.5 97.1 ± 8.2 0.238
Glucose, mmol/l 4.51 ± 0.51 4.55 ± 0.54 4.46 ± 0.48 0.010
Insulin, pmol/la 22.64 ± 18.47 21.39 ± 17.36 24.10 ± 19.52 0.011
HOMA-IRa 0.68 ± 0.62 0.65 ± 0.57 0.72 ± 0.66 0.011
Cholesterol, mmol/l 4.02 ± 0.73 3.99 ± 0.72 4.06 ± 0.74 0.127
HDL-c, mmol/l 1.23 ± 0.34 1.29 ± 0.33 1.19 ± 0.35 0.001b
Triglycerides, mmol/l 0.46 ± 0.25 0.45 ± 0.23 0.48 ± 0.28 0.188
Light PA, min/daya 395 ± 65 400 ± 65 390 ± 66 0.019
Moderate PA, min/daya 31 ± 16 34 ± 17 27 ± 14 <0.001b
Vigorous PA, min/daya 5 ± 5 6 ± 6 5 ± 5 0.281
MVPA, min/daya 36 ± 20 39 ± 21 32 ± 17 <0.001b
Total PA, cpm 598 ± 174 627 ± 179 565 ± 162 <0.001b
CVD risk score CRFs 0.02 ± 2.74 0.01 ± 2.70 0.03 ± 2.77 0.879
Group 6 to 9 years n = 2,025 n = 1,038 n = 987
Age, years 7.6 ± 0.8 7.6 ± 0.8 7.6 ± 0.8 0.926
Body mass, kg 27.7 ± 6.7 28.0 ± 6.9 27.5 ± 6.3 0.088
Height, cm 127.5 ± 7.3 128.2 ± 7.4 126.9 ± 7.3 <0.001b
BMI, kg/m2a 16.9 ± 2.9 16.9 ± 3.0 16.9 ± 2.8 0.618
Sum of two skinfolds, mma 19.8 ± 9.5 18.3 ± 9.2 21.4 ± 9.2 0.070
DBP, mmHg 64.2 ± 6.5 64.0 ± 6.7 64.5 ± 6.3 0.018
SBP, mmHg 103.2 ± 8.7 103.7 ± 8.7 102.8 ± 8.6 0.070
Glucose: mmol/l 4.81 ± 0.52 4.88 ± 0.52 4.75 ± 0.49 <0.001b
Insulin, pmol/la 35.84 ± 24.65 33.41 ± 22.43 38.34 ± 24.93 <0.001b
HOMA-IRa 1.13 ± 0.83 1.07 ± 0.77 1.20 ± 0.84 <0.001b
Cholesterol, mmol/l 4.19 ± 0.83 4.11 ± 0.77 4.28 ± 0.84 <0.001b
HDL-c, mmol/l 1.40 ± 0.38 1.42 ± 0.39 1.38 ± 0.37 0.016
Triglycerides, mmol/l 0.47 ± 0.26 0.45 ± 0.24 0.49 ± 0.29 <0.001b
Light PA, min/daya 364 ± 64 364 ± 63 364 ± 17 0.940
Moderate PA, min/daya 35 ± 17 41 ± 19 30 ± 12 <0.001b
Vigorous PA, min/daya 8 ± 6 8 ± 6 7 ± 8 0.001b
MVPA, min/daya 43 ± 22 49 ± 23 37 ± 18 <0.001b
Total PA, cpm 581 ± 169 609 ± 175 553 ± 157 <0.001b
Cardiorespiratory fitness, ml/kg/minc 41.7 ± 14.5 42.2 ± 14.3 41.3 ± 13.8 0.01
Stages (total number) 1.9 ± 1.3 2.1 ± 1.5 1.7 ± 1.1 <0.001b
CVD risk score CRFs 0.13 ± 3.11 0.09 ± 3.03 0.18 ± 3.19 0.501
CVD risk score CRFs + fitc −0.28 ± 3.26 −0.26 ± 3.016 −0.31 ± 3.36 0.775

CVD risk score CRFs includes SBP, HOMA-IR, ratio cholesterol/HDL-c, triglycerides and sum of two skinfolds; CVD risk score CRFs + fit added cardiorespiratory fitness.

aNon-transformed data are presented in this table but analyses were performed on log-transformed data.

bSignificant differences after to apply the Bonferroni correction factor for multiple tests.

cSample size including cardiorespiratory fitness was 835 participants (414 boys).

BMI body mass index, CRF CVD risk factor, CVD cardiovascular disease, DBP diastolic blood pressure, HDL high-density lipoprotein, HOMA-IR homeostasis model assessment, MVPA moderate + vigorous PA, PA physical activity, SBP systolic blood pressure.

Jiménez-Pavón et al.

Jiménez-Pavón et al. BMC Medicine 2013 11:172   doi:10.1186/1741-7015-11-172

Open Data