Table 2

Rate ratios for immune-mediated diseases following admission for rickets, osteomalacia or vitamin D deficiency, combined
Disease O E RR (95% CI) P-value
Addison’s disease 21 3 7.2 (4.4 to 11.0) <0.001
Ankylosing spondylitis1 16 8.2 2.0 (1.1 to 3.2) 0.01
Asthma (aged 5 to 54)2 150 375.5 0.4 (0.3 to 0.5) <0.001
Autoimmune hemolytic anemia 6 2.2 2.7 (1.0 to 5.9) 0.03
Chronic active hepatitis 6 1 6.2 (2.3 to 13.5) <0.001
Celiac disease3 78 14.3 5.5 (4.3 to 6.9) <0.001
Crohn’s disease3 47 17.9 2.6 (1.9 to 3.5) <0.001
Diabetes mellitus (aged 0 to 29)4 7 1.8 3.9 (1.6 to 8.1) <0.001
Hashimoto’s 6 2.8 2.1 (0.8 to 4.6) 0.11
Idiopathic thrombocyt. purpura 11 8.3 1.3 (0.7 to 2.4) 0.44
Multiple sclerosis5 15 13.1 1.1 (0.6 to 1.9) 0.7
Myxoedema 335 520.4 0.6 (0.6 to 0.7) <0.001
Pemphigoid 13 4.9 2.7 (1.4 to 4.5) 0.001
Pernicious anemia 60 35.7 1.7 (1.3 to 2.2) <0.001
Polymyositis 5 1 5.1 (1.6 to 11.9) <0.001
Primary biliary cirrhosis 12 4.4 2.8 (1.4 to 4.8) 0.001
Psoriasis 29 44.2 0.7 (0.4 to 0.9) 0.03
Rheumatoid arthritis1 158 126.2 1.3 (1.1 to 1.5) 0.005
Scleroderma 6 3.4 1.8 (0.7 to 3.9) 0.25
Sjogren’s syndrome 20 9.4 2.1 (1.3 to 3.3) 0.001
Systemic lupus erythematosus 33 8.1 4.1 (2.8 to 5.8) <0.001
Thyrotoxicosis 100 57.7 1.7 (1.4 to 2.1) <0.001
Ulcerative colitis3 32 25.2 1.3 (0.9 to 1.8) 0.21

O Observed number of cases, E Expected number, RR Rate ratio, 95% CI 95% Confidence interval.

1Hip replacement and knee replacement were excluded from the reference cohort.

2Nasal polyp and deflected septum were excluded from the reference cohort.

3Hemorrhoids, appendectomy and cholelithiasis were excluded from the reference cohort.

4Cataracts were excluded from the reference cohort.

5Limb fractures, dislocations, superficial injury, squint and head injury were excluded from the reference cohort.

Diseases studied, but with fewer than five observed cases: dermatomyositis, Goodpasture’s syndrome, myasthenia gravis, pemphigus, polyarteritis nodosa.

Ramagopalan et al.

Ramagopalan et al. BMC Medicine 2013 11:171   doi:10.1186/1741-7015-11-171

Open Data