Figure 2.

Biological rationale for addressing clinical issues by using upstream early events that ultimately lead to lung cancer phenotypes as genomic biomarkers. The diagram highlights early upstream markers for diagnosing or screening of lung cancer far in advance of the development of clinically evident invasive carcinomas, which are mainly driven by genetic, epigenetic and transcriptomic damage.

Brothers et al. BMC Medicine 2013 11:168   doi:10.1186/1741-7015-11-168
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