Table 2

Hazard ratios of total mortality according to the frequency of nut consumption (including and not including walnuts)
Total mortality Never 1 to 3 servings/week >3 servings/week P for trend
Frequency of total nut consumption: n = 2,118 n = 2,803 n = 2,295
All causes of death, % (n) 5.6 (119) 4.2 (117) 3.8 (87)
Person-years, n 8,724 12,168 10,185
Crude model 1 (Reference) 0.68 (0.52 to 0.88) 0.60 (0.45 to 0.79) 0.005
Multivariable model 1 1 (Reference) 0.68 (0.52 to 0.89) 0.55 (0.41 to 0.73) 0.001
Multivariable model 2 1 (Reference) 0.69 (0.53 to 0.91) 0.59 (0.43 to 0.79) 0.005
Multivariable model 3 1 (Reference) 0.71 (0.54 to 0.93) 0.61 (0.45 to 0.83) 0.012
Frequency of walnut consumption: n = 2,916 n = 2,547 n = 1,753
All causes of death, % (n) 5.6 (164) 3.9 (100) 3.4 (59)
Person-years, n 12,124 11,122 7,825
Crude model 1 (Reference) 0.64 (0.50 to 0.83) 0.54 (0.40 to 0.73) <0.001
Multivariable model 1 1 (Reference) 0.66 (0.51 to 0.85) 0.50 (0.37 to 0.68) <0.001
Multivariable model 2 1 (Reference) 0.65 (0.50 to 0.84) 0.53 (0.39 to 0.73) <0.001
Multivariable model 3 1 (Reference) 0.66 (0.51 to 0.86) 0.55 (0.40 to 0.76) <0.001
Frequency of consumption of other nuts (excluding walnuts): n = 3,308 n = 2,643 n = 1,265
All causes of death, % (n) 5.0 (166) 4.1 (109) 3.8 (48)
Person-years, n 13,936 11,573 5,566
Crude model 1 (Reference) 0.77 (0.60 to 0.98) 0.71 (0.52 to 0.98) 0.068
Multivariable model 1 1 (Reference) 0.75 (0.59 to 0.96) 0.62 (0.44 to 0.86) 0.010
Multivariable model 2 1 (Reference) 0.78 (0.61 to 1.00) 0.64 (0.45 to 0.90) 0.021
Multivariable model 3 1 (Reference) 0.80 (0.62 to 1.03) 0.66 (0.46 to 0.93) 0.031

One serving of nuts equals 28 g. Cox regression models were used to assess the risk of all-cause mortality by frequency of nut consumption. Multivariable model 1 was adjusted for age in years, sex, and intervention group. Model 2 was additionally adjusted for body mass index (BMI) in kg/m2, smoking status (never, former, current smoker), educational level (illiterate/primary education, secondary education, academic/graduate), leisure time physical activity in MET-min/day, history of diabetes (yes/no), history of hypercholesterolemia (yes/no), use of oral antidiabetic medication (yes/no), use of antihypertensive medication (yes/no), use of statins (yes/no), and total energy intake (kcal/day). Model 3 was also adjusted for dietary variables in quintiles (vegetables, fruits, red meat, eggs, and fish), alcohol intake (continuous, adding a quadratic term) and Mediterranean diet adherence (13-point score). All models were stratified by recruitment centre. Extremes of total energy intake were excluded.

Guasch-Ferré et al.

Guasch-Ferré et al. BMC Medicine 2013 11:164   doi:10.1186/1741-7015-11-164

Open Data