Table 1

Important characteristics of main glucose-lowering agents
HbA1C reduction (%) Hypoglycemia Weight Use in heart failure Use in renal failure Stimulation of insulin secretion Increase of insulin sensitivity Durability of action Main side effects Outcome benefit Relevant references
Metformin 1.0 to 1.5 - - +/- - - + ~↑ Gastrointestinal + [1,2,10,12,32,37,54,55],[60,65]
Lactic acidosis
Sulfonylureas 1.0 to 1.5 + - +/- + - Hypoglycemia +/- [1,2,10,12,32,37,47,76]
Weight gain
Meglitinides 0.5 to 1.0 + - + + - Hypoglycemia [1,2,10,12,46,76]
Weight gain
Thiazolidinediones 1.0 to 1.5 - - + - + ~↑ Weight gain [1,2,10,12,37,58-60,63,64]
Oedema/Heart failure
GLP-1 receptor agonists 1.0 to 1.5 - + +/- + - ? Gastrointestinal ? [10-18,72,73,75,76]
? Pancreatitis
DPP-4 inhibitors 0.5 to 1.0 - - + +/- + - ? ? Pancreatitis ? [10-12,61,64,73,75,76]
Insulin therapy >1.0 + +/- + Hypoglycemia + [6,7,10,20-22,32,50-52]
Weight gain
?Mitogenic effects

DDP-4 dipeptidyl peptidase-4, GLP-1 glucagon-like peptide-1, HbA1C glycated haemoglobin, ~ approximately.

Paschou and Leslie

Paschou and Leslie BMC Medicine 2013 11:161   doi:10.1186/1741-7015-11-161

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