Table 1

Criteria for inclusion and exclusion of datasets in validation analysis.




Publication date

Studies published in the past 10 years

Studies published before 2003


Studies that had recorded clinical features; prospective or retrospective cohort study design

Unclear methods

Sample Size

> 500 children

< 500 children


Age between 1 month and 18 years of age; studies including children spanning this age range were included if they reported age (or age could be calculated)

Children with congenital or obtained immunodeficiency. Age outside the required range


Ambulatory care (defined as general or family practice, pediatric outpatient clinics, pediatric assessment units, or emergency departments). Developed countries, defined using the United Nations list, which included Europe, Canada, USA, Australia, New Zealand and Japan

Studies conducted in developing countries


Serious infection, defined as sepsis (including bacteremia), meningitis, pneumonia, osteomyelitis, cellulitis, and complicated urinary-tract infection (positive urine culture and systemic effects such as fever)

Diagnosis other than serious infection

Data availability

Agreement to share data

Verbakel et al. BMC Medicine 2013 11:10   doi:10.1186/1741-7015-11-10

Open Data