Table 2

Summary of odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals of PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism and diabetic retinopathy risk.

Comparisons

Number

of studies

OR (95%CI)

Pa

Alleles/genotypes

(DR/DWR)


4G/4G versus 5G/5G

Total

9

1.30 (1.04, 1.64)

0.27

1, 396 (656/740)

Source of control

Population based

2

1.37 (0.85, 2.20)

0.15

344 (102/242)

Hospital based

7

1.28 (0.99, 1.67)

0.26

1, 052 (554/498)

Ethnicity

Caucasian

5

1.33 (1.02, 1.74)

0.36

1, 007 (452/555)

Asian

3

1.00 (0.61, 1.65)

0.27

306 (178/128)

Average diabetes duration

Longer than 10 years

4

1.47 (1.08, 2.00)

0.33

787 (430/357)

Shorter than 10 years

5

1.13 (0.80, 1.58)

0.27

609 (226/383)

4G/5G versus 5G/5G

Total

9

1.01 (0.74, 1.37)

0.04

1, 970 (874/1, 123)

Source of control

Population based

2

1.58 (0.42, 5.88)

0.00b

469 (139/330)

Hospital based

7

0.90 (0.72, 1.11)

0.39

1, 528 (735/793)

Ethnicity

Caucasian

5

0.87 (0.70, 1.08)

0.55

1, 499 (614/885)

Asian

3

0.99 (0.61, 1.60)

0.22

358 (204/154)

Average diabetes duration

Longer than 10 years

4

0.94 (0.73, 1.20)

0.62

1, 118 (554/564)

Shorter than 10 years

5

1.03 (0.57, 1.85)

0.00b

879 (320/559)

4G/4G versus 5G/5G + 4G/5G

Total

9

1.26 (1.05, 1.52)

0.25

2, 676 (1, 217/1, 459)

Source of control

Population based

2

1.25 (0.86, 1.80)

0.85

661 (201/460)

Hospital based

7

1.27 (1.02, 1.57)

0.12

2, 015 (1, 016/999)

Ethnicity

Caucasian

5

1.41 (1.13, 1.77)

0.29

1, 936 (819/1117)

Asian

3

0.96 (0.67, 1.37)

0.37

568 (328/240)

Average diabetes duration

Longer than 10 years

4

1.26 (0.80, 1.98)

0.03b

1, 481 (779/702)

Shorter than 10 years

5

1.16 (0.89, 1.53)

0.92

1, 195(438/757)

4G/4G + 4G/5G versus 5G/5G

Total

9

1.07 (0.82, 1.39)

0.09b

2, 679 (1, 217/1, 459)

Source of control

Population based

2

1.62 (0.52, 5.03)

0.01b

661 (201/460)

Hospital based

7

0.99 (0.81, 1.22)

0.46

2, 015 (1, 016/999)

Ethnicity

Caucasian

5

0.99 (0.81, 1.21)

0.62

1, 936 (819/1, 117)

Asian

3

0.98 (0.62, 1.54)

0.22

568 (328/240)

Average diabetes duration

Longer than 10 years

4

1.06 (0.84, 1.34)

0.81

1, 481 (779/702)

Shorter than 10 years

5

1.08 (0.64, 1.81)

0.01b

1, 195 (438/757)

4G versus 5G

Total

9

1.13 (1.01, 1.26)

0.31

5, 364 (2, 446/2, 918)

Source of control

Population based

2

1.23 (0.97, 1.56)

0.15

1, 322 (402/920)

Hospital based

7

1.10 (0.97, 1.25)

0.35

4, 042 (2, 044/1, 998)

Ethnicity

Caucasian

5

1.14 (1.00, 1.30)

0.57

3, 884 (1, 650/2, 234)

Asian

3

0.97 (0.76, 1.25)

0.27

1, 136 (656/480)

Average diabetes duration

Longer than 10 years

4

1.14 (0.98, 1.33)

0.42

2, 962 (15, 58/1, 404)

Shorter than 10 years

5

1.11 (0.94, 1.32)

0.16

2, 402 (888/1, 514)


a P-value for heterogeneity; b Estimates for random-effects model. CI: confidence intervals; DR: diabetic retinopathy; DWR: diabetes without retinopathy; OR: odds ratio.

Zhang et al. BMC Medicine 2013 11:1   doi:10.1186/1741-7015-11-1

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