Table 1

Characteristics of case-control studies included in the meta-analysis.

First author

Year

Country

Ethnicity

Distribution of PAI genotypes

Sample Size

(DR/DWR)

HWE

Reference

Number


4G/4G

4G/5G

5G/5G


DR

DWR

DR

DWR

DR

DWR


Nagi

1997

U.S.A.

Pima Indian

14

18

44

45

12

39

70/102

0.43

[19]

Broch

1998

Spain

Caucasian

17

19

46

48

19

28

82/95

0.85

[21]

Wong

2000

China

East Asian

31

16

38

28

15

13

84/57

0.91

[23]

Santos

2003

Brazil

Caucasian

24

22

41

59

34

30

99/111

0.47

[16]

Globocnik-Petrovic

2003

Slovenia

Caucasian

39

25

58

40

27

15

124/80

0.89

[18]

Liu

2004

China

East Asian

15

27

26

49

15

15

56/91

0.36

[24]

Zietz

2004

Germany

Caucasian

48

112

55

173

28

73

131/358

0.68

[20]

Murata

2004

Japan

East Asian

78

43

86

35

24

14

188/92

0.14

[22]

Ezzidi

2009

Tunisia

Caucasian

77

54

167

242

139

177

383/473

0.56

[17]


DR: diabetic retinopathy; DWR: diabetes without retinopathy; HWE: Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium.

Zhang et al. BMC Medicine 2013 11:1   doi:10.1186/1741-7015-11-1

Open Data