Table 1

Effects of GLP-1 analogs with relevance for schizophrenia

Unresolved challenges in schizophrenia

Effect of GLP-1 analog treatment

Current level of evidence

Reference(s)


Endocrinological

issues


Weight gain (non-diabetes)

Weight loss

Improved glycaemic control (1% reduction in HbA1c)

Reduction in plasma levels of cholesterol and liver enzymes

Improved beta cell function

Reduction in systolic and diastolic blood pressure

Prospective RCT* (2 years)

and systematic review with meta-analyses of RCTs*

[35,36]


Diabetes (dysmetabolism)

Weight loss

Improved glycaemic control (1% reduction in HbA1c)

Reduction in plasma levels of cholesterol and liver enzymes

Improved beta cell function

Reduction in systolic and diastolic blood pressure

Cochrane systematic review and systematic review with meta-analyses of RCTs*

[35,72]


Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

Reduction of hepatic lipid deposition

Preclinical studies

[37,38]


Neuropsychiatric issues


Cognition

Improvement of memory deficits

Preclinical studies

[41,43]


Extrapyramidal side effects

Reduction of dyskinesia and regeneration of dopaminergic neurons

Preclinical studies

[45,46]


Neuroprotection

Increased neurogenesis and modulation of synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus

Preclinical studies

[43,44]


Quality of life

Improved well-being and reduced Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale after six months compared to diabetic patients treated with insulin (the improvement was found to be independent of changes in body mass index)

Prospective, observational study

[73]


*RCT: Randomized clinical trial.

Ebdrup et al. BMC Medicine 2012 10:92   doi:10.1186/1741-7015-10-92

Open Data