Metabolic profiling in molecular epidemiology: a methodology to identify intermediate biomarkers of response to environmental toxicants. A) Map of United Kingdom showing Bristol region. Reproduced from Ordnance Survey map data by permission of the Ordnance Survey © Crown copyright 2010. B) Air Cd concentration around the Avonmouth zinc smelter site (data from Thomas et al. (2009)). Contours represent modeled air Cd concentration (ng/m3). Dotted line represents boundary of Bristol North PCT from where volunteers were recruited. C) Partial 1H NMR one dimensional spectrum with key metabolites annotated. 3-HV, 3-hydroxyisovalerate; DMG, dimethylglycine. D) Outline of the metabolic profiling and statistical methods used to define associations between the metabolome and environmental toxicants.
Ellis et al. BMC Medicine 2012 10:61 doi:10.1186/1741-7015-10-61