Table 1 

Estimates of effects in Model 5 for Part 1, Part 2 and PACES. 

Part 1 
Part 2 
PACES 



Starting value (s) 
Mean (fixed effect) 
4.60 (.025 ***) 
3.14 (.051 ***) 
1.120 (.0474 ***) 
Standard deviation (random effect) 
11.2 (.048 ***) 
6.63 (.046 ***) 
4.98 (.0614 ***) 

Maximum (m) 
Mean (fixed effect) 
9.77 (0.475 ***) 
6.33 (.349 ***) 
4.42 (.989 ***) 
Standard deviation (random effect) 
11.43 (.458 ***) 
6.00 (.367 ***) 
4.64 (.512 ***) 

Rate of growth (b) 
Mean (fixed effect) 
.318 (.025 ***) 
.376 (.046 ***) 
.396 (.098 ***) 
Standard deviation (random effect) 
.375 (.025 ***) 
.869 (.219 ***) 
.203 (.148 NS) 

Correlation of Starting value with Maximum value 
.534 (.029 ***) 
.169 (.065 **) 
.668 (.082 ***) 

Correlation of Starting value with Rate of Growth 
.228 (.044 ***) 
.274 (.117 *) 
.946 (.009 NS) 

Correlation of Rate of Growth with Maximum 
.357 (.053 ***) 
.167 (.153 NS) 
.337 (.787 NS) 



Standard errors are indicated in brackets, along with the significance level: *** P < .001; l ** P < .01; * P < .05; NS Not significant. PACES, Practical Assessment of Clinical Examination Skills. 

McManus and Ludka BMC Medicine 2012 10:60 doi:10.1186/174170151060 