Open Access Research article

Lifestyle factors affecting gastroesophageal reflux disease symptoms: a cross-sectional study of healthy 19864 adults using FSSG scores

Nobutake Yamamichi*, Satoshi Mochizuki, Itsuko Asada-Hirayama, Rie Mikami-Matsuda, Takeshi Shimamoto, Maki Konno-Shimizu, Yu Takahashi, Chihiro Takeuchi, Keiko Niimi, Satoshi Ono, Shinya Kodashima, Chihiro Minatsuki, Mitsuhiro Fujishiro, Toru Mitsushima and Kazuhiko Koike

BMC Medicine 2012, 10:45  doi:10.1186/1741-7015-10-45

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Do hypnotics cause GERD?

Daniel Kripke   (2012-06-11 11:39)  UCSD

The strong association of reported sleep disturbance with GERD is interesting. Gagliardi et al. [1] showed experimentally that zolpidem caused GERD. More recently, my colleagues and I [2] found an association of hypnotic usage with both esophageal-gastric complaints and esophageal cancer. Thus, it seems important to determine if hypnotics were the underlying cause of GERD associated with "inadequate sleep" in this study. Can the authors comment?

[1] Gagliardi, G. S., Shah, A. P., Goldstein, M., Denua-Rivera, S., Doghramji, K., Cohen, S., and Dimarino, A. J., Jr. Effect of Zolpidem On the Sleep Arousal Response To Nocturnal Esophageal Acid Exposure. Clin Gastroenterol.Hepatol. 7(9), 948-952. 5-6-2009.

[2] Kripke, D. F., Langer, R. D., and Kline, L. E. Hypnotics' association with mortality or cancer: a matched cohort study. BMJ Open. 2(1), e000850. 2012 and "Web Extra" data supplement.

Competing interests



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