Table 2

Cognitive Outcomes at Baseline

A

(Mean ± SD)

B

(Mean ± SD)

C

(Mean ± SD)

F


RBANS total score

86.05 ± 14.11

85.95 ± 14.17

83.34 ± 14.54

0.78

Immediate memory

80.81 ± 15.60

79.84 ± 15.51

77.15 ± 15.21

1.00

Visuospatial/Constructional

97.75 ± 16.37

93.87 ± 16.24

94.44 ± 16.50

1.00

Language

94.05 ± 11.64

92.76 ± 9.66

94.32 ± 8.70

0.45

Attention

84.90 ± 17.37

87.54 ± 16.86

83.38 ± 16.37

1.03

Delayed Memory

89.80 ± 17.57

93.00 ± 17.42

86.76 ± 17.36

2.14

The Visual Reasoning Test

4.63 ± 1.86

4.92 ± 1.90

4.70 ± 2.21

0.35

The CWST

Color interfere

20.98 ± 14.99

17.26 ± 9.50

20.97 ± 12.71

1.84

Word interfere

44.76 ± 25.53

39.95 ± 17.42

41.15 ± 19.57

0.85

Number of naming errors

10.67 ± 11.02

8.39 ± 7.58

11.68 ± 12.59

1.61

The TMT

Trails A complete time

113.25 ± 50.30

107.55 ± 55.93

114.52 ± 51.89

0.32

Trails A error number

0.47 ± 0.90

0.48 ± 1.08

0.51 ± 1.01

0.02

Trails A reminding time

0.02 ± 0.13

0.03 ± 0.25

0.06 ± 0.23

0.56

Trails A approximate error number

0.02 ± 0.13

0.02 ± 0.13

0.11 ± 0.32

4.31*

Trails B complete time

205.64 ± 114.43

201.15 ± 101.97

222.96 ± 124.15

0.68

Trails B error number

0.64 ± 1.87

0.69 ± 1.98

0.77 ± 1.94

0.07

Trails B reminding time

0.36 ± 1.40

0.23 ± 1.08

0.41 ± 0.98

0.40

Trails B approximate error number

0.19 ± 0.44

0.11 ± 0.45

0.09 ± 0.28

1.12

MMSE

27.16 ± 2.13

27.33 ± 2.14

26.86 ± 2.22

0.79


* P < 0.05; A: Multi-domain Training Group; B: Single-domain Training Group; C: Control Group. CWST, Color Word Stroop test; MMSE, Mini-mental State Examination; RBANS, Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status; TMT, Trail Making test.

Cheng et al. BMC Medicine 2012 10:30   doi:10.1186/1741-7015-10-30

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