Markers of immune function in T1D patients after Stem Cell Educator therapy. Patient lymphocytes were isolated from peripheral blood by Ficoll-Hypaque (γ = 1.077) for flow cytometry analyses in T1D patients at baseline and 4 weeks after Stem Cell Educator therapy. Isotype-matched IgG served as control. (A) Flow Analysis of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ Tregs demonstrating an increase in the percentage of Tregs at 4 weeks post-treatment. (B) Cytokine ELISAs demonstrating an increase in TGF-β1 but not IL-10 at 4 weeks post treatment. (C) Flow cytometry on co-stimulating molecules indicating increases in CD28 and ICOS at 4 weeks post-treatment with Stem Cell Educator therapy (top panels). Control group failed to show increases (bottom panels). (D) Flow analysis of intra-cellular cytokines demonstrating differential effects on key interleukins at 4 weeks post-treatment. Data are representative of preparations from all T1D participants (n = 12) that received Stem Cell Educator therapy. ELISA, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; ICOS, inducible costimulator; IgG, immunoglobulin G; IL10, interleukin 10; T1D, type 1 diabetes; Tregs, regulatory T cells.
Zhao et al. BMC Medicine 2012 10:3 doi:10.1186/1741-7015-10-3