Table 3

Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for affective disorders (ADs) by date of diabetes diagnosis and diabetes mellitus (DM) treatment.a,b

ADsc

Unipolard

Bipolare


Descriptor

Cases/total study group, n

HR (95% CI)

HR (95% CI)f

Cases/total study group, n

HR (95% CI)f

Cases/total study group, n

HR (95% CI)f


DM without OAA

42/1509

Ref.

Ref.

25/1509

Ref.

17/1509

Ref.

Metformin only

43/1509

0.92

1.00

29/1509

1.28

14/1509

0.61

(0.59 to 1.45)

(0.61 to 1.64)

(0.68 to 2.40)

(0.22 to 1.65)


DM without OAA

140/2904

Ref.

Ref.

96/2904

Ref.

44/20904

Ref.

Sulfonylureas only

145/2904

1.08

1.13

97/2904

1.14

48/2904

1.10

(0.84 to 1.38)

(0.87 to 1.47)

(0.83 to 1.56)

(0.68 to 1.78)


DM without OAA

282/5397

Ref.

Ref.

189/5397

Ref.

93/5397

Ref.

Sulfonylureas+ Metformin

127/5397

0.40

0.42

83/5397

0.44

44/5397

0.38

(0.32 to 0.50)i

(0.33 to 0.53)i

(0.33 to 0.60)i

(0.25 to 0.58)i


DM without OAA

157/2843

Ref.

Ref.

109/2843

Ref.

48/2843

Ref.

SU+Met (SU first)

60/2843

0.32

0.33

36/2843

0.32

24/2843

0.37

(0.23 to 0.44)i

(0.23 to 0.47)i

(0.21 to 0.50)i

(0.20 to 0.68)i


DM without OAA

33/968

Ref.

Ref.

18/968

Ref.

15/968

Ref.

SU+Met (Met first)

19/968

0.53

0.45

10/968

0.45

9/968

0.50

(0.29 to 0.98)g

(0.23 to 0.89)g

(0.17 to 1.17)

(0.18 to 1.36)


DM without OAA

92/1586

Ref.

Ref.

62/1586

Ref.

30/1586

Ref.

SU+Met (the same time)

48/1586

0.50

0.54

37/1586

0.65

11/1586

0.32

(0.35 to 0.72)i

(0.36 to 0.82)i

(0.40 to 1.04)

(0.14 to 0.75)h


aSubjects were matched by date of diagnosis (within the same calendar year), age group (50 to 54, 55 to 59, 60 to 64, 65 to 69, ≥70 uears), locality, level of care, and Carlson Comorbidity Index.

bOAAs: oral anti-diabetic agents; SU: sulfonylureas; Met: metformin; Ref, reference

cInternational Classification of Diseases(ICD) code 296.

dICD: 296.2, 296.3,

eICD: 296.0, 296.1, 296.4, 296.5, 296.6, 296.7, 296.8, 296.9

fAdjusted for monthly income (0, 1-15,000, 15,000-21000, >21000 NTD) and insulin usage (yes, no).

g-iSignificance: gP<0·05, hP<0·01, iP<0·001.

Wahlqvist et al. BMC Medicine 2012 10:150   doi:10.1186/1741-7015-10-150

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