Table 2

Examples of some agents used to reduce violence and aggression

Medications for alcoholism

Naltrexone and acamprosate in sober alcoholics to reduce craving and relapse [63,64]; prazosin in alcoholism with PTSD for caving and relapse [127].


Nutritional factors

Essential omega 3 fatty acids, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acids (EPA) in bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder; multiple vitamins and minerals with DHA and EPA in young male prisoners, and in children [53,57-59,128].


Lithium

In children and adults, in personality disorders, and in combination with other anticonvulsants or atypical antipsychotics [40,48].


Beta-blockers

Propranolol in brain-injury, autism, schizophrenia, organic mental disorders [37,129].


Anticonvulsants

Carbamazepine/oxcarbazepine in impulsive violence and in elderly [32,36]; phenytoin in prisoners and in intermittent explosive disorder [32,38,49,130]; Topriamate in borderline personality disorder and in depression [40]; valproate/divalproex in a variety of psychiatric conditions [32,40].


Antidepressants

Flouxetine in personality disorders [131], and in domestic abuse when combined with Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) and alcohol treatment [132]; trazodone in dementia associated aggression [133].


Atypical antipsychotics

Clozapine in schizophrenia [33,134]; quetiapine in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder [33,40]; Loxapine in schizophrenic and psychosis [40], olanzapine in schizophrenia and borderline personality disorder [33,40]; aripiprazole in schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorders and borderline personality disorder [33,40]; risperidone in a variety of psychiatric illness [40].


Umhau et al. BMC Medicine 2012 10:146   doi:10.1186/1741-7015-10-146

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