Table 1

Summary of established and potential biomarkers for diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of multiple sclerosis.

Established biomarkers

Diagnosis

Prognosis

Treatment response/side effects


Cerebral spinal fluid-specific oligoclonal bands

+

(+)

-

Intrathecal immunoglobulin production

+

(+)

-

Intrathecal anti-viral immunoglobulin production

+

-

-

Magnetic resonance imaging

+

(+)

(+)

Neutralizing antibodies against beta-interferon

-

-

(+)

Neutralizing antibodies against natalizumab

-

-

+

Antibodies against JC virus

-

-

+

Aquaporin 4 antibodies

+

(+)

(+)

Potential biomarkers

CD56 bright natural killer cells

-

-

(+)

Cytokines/chemokines

-

-

(+)

Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibodies

(+)

-

-

Intrathecal/oligoclonal immunoglobulin M production

-

(+)

-

Transcriptomics

-

-

(+)

Genetics

(+)

(+)

(+)


+ valid biomarker that is used in clinical practice; (+) there is experimental and clinical evidence for this biomarker, but the need for more clinical data; - there is no clear evidence.

Derfuss BMC Medicine 2012 10:116   doi:10.1186/1741-7015-10-116

Open Data