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Open Access Research article

Mouse maternal systemic inflammation at the zygote stage causes blunted cytokine responsiveness in lipopolysaccharide-challenged adult offspring

Charlotte L Williams, Jessica L Teeling, V Hugh Perry and Tom P Fleming*

Author Affiliations

School of Biological Sciences, University of Southampton, Mailpoint 840, Level D Laboratories & Pathology Block, Southampton General Hospital, Tremona Road, Southampton SO16 6YD, UK

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BMC Biology 2011, 9:49  doi:10.1186/1741-7007-9-49

Published: 19 July 2011

Additional files

Additional file 1:

Figure S1. Maternal serum cytokine concentrations (pg/mL) 3 to 72 hours following treatment with saline or LPS. Bars: maternal LPS treatment; white: saline control; dark: 10 μg/kg; light: 50 μg/kg; hatched: 150 μg/kg. All values represent means ± SEM. *P ≤ 0.05 compared with control (n = 5 to 7 mothers per treatment). The multiplex assay allowed us to detect and quantify the full concentration range of every cytokine at every time point examined, except for G-CSF, KC and IL-6 at three hours postinjection. The data presented here for G-CSF, KC and IL-6 at three hours postinjection are underrepresentative of actual concentrations, particularly for the LPS-treated groups (indicated by ! on graphs).

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Additional file 2:

Table S1. Embryos flushed from control and LPS-treated mothers at GD 3.5. Values represent means ± SEM (n = 4 to 8 mothers per treatment).

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Additional file 3:

Figure S2. No difference in growth of female or male offspring from birth to 30 weeks. Values represent means ± SEM independent of maternal origin and litter size (n = 6 mothers per treatment; n = 18 male and 18 female offspring per treatment).

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Additional file 4:

Figure S3. Lifetime mean distance travelled and time spent resting by adult offspring in the open-field behavioural test. Bars: maternal LPS treatment; white: saline control; dark: 10 μg/kg; light: 50 μg/kg; hatched: 150 μg/kg. Values represent means ± SEM independent of maternal origin and litter size (n = 6 mothers per treatment; n = 18 male and 18 female offspring per treatment).

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Additional file 5:

Figure S4. Individual weekly open-field activity of adult male and female offspring. Values represent means ± SEM. *P ≤ 0.05 vs. control independent of maternal origin and litter size (n = 6 mothers per treatment; n = 18 male and 18 female offspring per treatment).

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Additional file 6:

Figure S5. Individual weekly systolic blood pressure (SBP) of adult male and female offspring. Values represent means ± SEM. *P ≤ 0.05 vs. control independent of maternal origin and litter size (n = 6 mothers per treatment; n = 18 male and 18 female offspring per treatment).

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Additional file 7:

Figure S6. Body composition of adult offspring. (A) Organs to body weight (%) of males. (B) Fat pad to body weight ratio (%) and BMI of females. (C) Organs to body weight ratio (%) of females. (D) Liver to body weight ratio (%) in males and females. All values represent means ± SEM. *P ≤ 0.05 vs. control independent of maternal origin and litter size (n = 6 mothers per treatment; n = 18 male and 18 female offspring per treatment).

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Additional file 8:

Figure S7. Serum cytokine concentrations (pg/mL) of adult offspring from each maternal treatment group 3.5 hours after LPS challenge. Values represent means ± SEM. *P ≤ 0.05 vs. control independent of maternal origin and litter size (n = 6 mothers per treatment). Maternal treatments: Sal = saline; 10 LPS = 10 μg/kg LPS; 50 LPS = 50 μg/kg LPS; 150 LPS = 150 μg/kg LPS.

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Additional file 9:

Figure S8. Serum corticosterone concentration (ng/mL) of adult offspring from each maternal treatment. Values represent means ± SEM (n = 6 mothers per treatment). Maternal treatments: Sal = saline; 10 LPS = 10 μg/kg LPS; 50 LPS = 50 μg/kg LPS; 150 LPS = 150 μg/kg LPS.

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