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Open Access Highly Accessed Research article

Rapid sympatric ecological differentiation of crater lake cichlid fishes within historic times

Kathryn R Elmer1, Topi K Lehtonen12, Andreas F Kautt1, Chris Harrod34 and Axel Meyer1*

Author Affiliations

1 Lehrstuhl für Zoologie und Evolutionsbiologie, Department of Biology, University of Konstanz, Universitätstrasse 10, 78457 Konstanz, Germany

2 School of Biological Sciences, Monash University, Victoria 3800, Australia

3 Department of Evolutionary Genetics, Max Planck Institute for Limnology, Postfach 165, 24302 Plön, Germany

4 Current Address: School of Biological Sciences, Queen's University Belfast, Medical Biology Centre, 97 Lisburn Road, Belfast BT9 7BL, UK

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BMC Biology 2010, 8:60  doi:10.1186/1741-7007-8-60

Published: 12 May 2010

Additional files

Additional file 1:

Microsatellite DNA summary statistics. Microsatellite heterozygosity, the number of alleles and the inbreeding coefficient by locus and lake.

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Additional file 2:

Factorial correspondence analysis of microsatellite alleles. Crater lake Apoyeque has extremely reduced genetic variability compared to and is significantly differentiated from, the neighbouring crater lake Xiloá and great lake Managua. Apoyeque (rust; n = 386), Xiloá (tan; n = 50) and Managua (green; n = 185).

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Additional file 3:

Pairwise population genetic differentiation between lakes. Matrix of FST-values between each population pair: microsatellite differentiation is on the upper right and mitochondrial DNA differentiation is in the lower left of the matrix. Each lake is significantly genetically differentiated from the other.

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Additional file 4:

Maximal posterior probabilities for three independent iterations of isolation-with-migration coalescence analysis (IMA). Maximal posterior probability peaks (HiPt) for three independent runs of IMA. Parameter q is the estimated effective population size of (1) Apoyeque, (2) Managua and (a) the ancestral population, in numbers of individuals; m is the rate of migration from (1) Managua to Apoyeque and (2) Apoyeque to Managua in average number of migrations per 1 000 generations per gene copy; t is the years since divergence between Apoyeque and Managua.

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Additional file 5:

Specimen list. Specimens included in the analyses by lake of origin, species, specimen number, lip morph (L = thick-lipped, N = thin-lipped; only relevant for Apoyeque) and sex/maturity (F = adult female, M = adult male, J = juvenile, not noted = not noted or unassignable; only relevant for Apoyeque). Ecological and morphological analyses include: stable isotope analyses (SIA), diet or gut contents (gut), absolute size (body length, head width), and geometric morphometric analyses of body shape and pharyngeal jaw shape. Genetic data include mitochondrial DNA Genbank accession numbers and whether the specimen was genotyped for microsatellite loci (x = genotyped).

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Additional file 6:

Standard body length of Midas cichlids in Apoyeque by lip morphology and sex. Body size, measured as standard length, did not differ between thin- and thick-lipped individuals (Two factor ANOVA, morph effect, F1,202 = 0.652, P = 0.42). Males were significantly larger than females (sex effect, F1,202 = 19.9, P < 0.001) for both morphs (morph × sex interaction, F1,202 = 0.082, P = 0.78).

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Additional file 7:

Bivariate analysis of lip size by body length (mm), fitted with quadratic line for thin- and thick-lipped fishes. A plot of lip size (total lip area, mm2) by body length (standard length, mm) with quadratic lines of best-fit shows the different relationship of lip and body size in each of the morphs (n = 309 thin-lipped, n = 71 thick-lipped). A quadratic (df = 2) had improved goodness-of-fit to the data over a linear (df = 1) regression (thin-lipped: adjusted R2 = 0.705 vs. 0.672, thick-lipped: adjusted R2 0.506 vs. 0.461; non-transformed data).

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Additional file 8:

Frequency distributions of eco-morphological phenotypes and the deviations from normality. Frequency histograms (left) and normal probability plots (compared to expected proportions under a single normal distribution) (right) for (A) absolute lip size standardized by body length, (B) PC1 of body shape, (B) PC1 of pharyngeal jaw shape, (C) MDS1 for diet inferred from stomach contents and stable isotope values of (D) 13C and (E) 15N indicative of trophic niche. See Table 2 and text for further information.

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