Table 1

Taxonomic distribution of gene duplications, focusing on eight developmental pathwaysa

Taxon

GPCRs

Hedgehog

JAK/STAT pathway

NHRs

NOTCH

RTKs

TGF-β

WNT

Sum for eight pathways

All genes


Kingdom and related

Metazoa

31

2

-

-

4

5

10

5

57

    182

Bilateria

503

31

12

16

54

187

59

86

948

    3,313

Phyla and subphyla

Chordata

129

3

5

1

9

34

10

25

216

    1,171

Vertebrata

1,327

34

76

38

56

299

66

145

2,041

    7,701

Superclass, class, subclass

Tetrapoda

85

-

4

1

2

6

1

1

100

    500

Amniota

74

-

1

1

1

5

1

1

84

    367

Mammalia

164

-

2

3

-

3

1

4

177

    725

Theria

272

-

1

1

1

-

-

2

277

    764

Eutheria

261

-

5

7

1

5

2

4

285

    1,933

Superorder, order, infraorder

Catarrhini

69

-

-

-

1

4

1

2

77

    1,478

Clupeocephala

102

1

-

-

9

21

2

12

147

    3,268

Laurasiatheria

23

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

23

    111

Smegmamorpha

3

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

3

    91

Family, subfamily, genus

Ciona

21

-

-

-

-

2

-

-

23

    1,242

Hominidae

62

-

-

-

-

3

1

1

67

    628

Murinae

356

-

6

5

-

3

1

-

371

    1,184

Percomorpha

15

-

-

-

-

2

-

1

18

    1,479

Tetraodontidae

2

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

2

    471

Species

Bos taurus

15

-

-

-

1

1

-

-

17

    2,472

Canis familiaris

222

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

222

    1,122

Ciona intestinalis

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

    2,041

Ciona savignyi

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

    736

Danio rerio

96

3

-

-

3

5

-

2

109

    4,076

Fugu rubripes

6

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

6

    1425

Gallus gallus

8

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

8

    1,075

Gasterosteus aculeatus

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

    1,298

Homo sapiens

31

-

1

-

-

3

1

1

37

    1,010

Macaca mulatta

5

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

5

    1,504

Monodelphis domestica

5

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

5

    2,363

Mus musculus

214

-

-

-

3

3

-

1

221

    2,125

Ornithorhynchus anatinus

182

-

-

-

-

1

-

1

184

    1,031

Oryzias latipes

7

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

7

    1,097

Pan troglodytes

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

    231

Rattus norvegicus

263

-

1

3

-

-

-

2

269

    3,112

Tetraodon nigroviridis

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

    1,749

Xenopus tropicalis

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

    2,617


aPhylogenetic timing associates Vertebrata and Bilateria with the highest numbers of duplications (in bold). Total associated with a given taxon is given in the last column and underlined. Table rows are sorted according to taxonomic ranks (kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, and species). Duplication numbers for all components of the eight selected pathways are given. GPCRs, G protein-coupled receptors; JAK/STAT, Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription; nuclear hormone receptors (NHRs); RTKs, receptor tyrosine kinases; TGF-β, transforming growth factor-β.

Huminiecki and Heldin BMC Biology 2010 8:146   doi:10.1186/1741-7007-8-146

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