Table 4

Relative rate tests for comparing the molecular evolutionary rate of groEL gene (nucleotide 1st, 2nd positions of codon) among the lineages of the symbionts of acanthosomatid stinkbugs, symbionts of plataspid stinkbugs, endocellular symbionts of aphids, and their free-living relatives.

Lineage 1a

Lineage 2a

Outgroupb

K1c

K2d

Difference of distancee

Rate ratiof

P valueg


Gut symbionts of acanthosomatid stinkbugs

Gut symbionts of plataspid stinkbugs

Closely related endosymbionts

0.034

0.065

-0.031

0.52

0.0170

Gut symbionts of acanthosomatid stinkbugs

Buchnera aphidicola of aphids

Closely related endosymbionts

0.036

0.096

-0.060

0.38

0.0002

Gut symbionts of plataspid stinkbugs

Buchnera aphidicola of aphids

Closely related endosymbionts

0.056

0.084

-0.028

0.67

0.0884

Gut symbionts of acanthosomatid stinkbugs

Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi

Vibrio cholerae

0.090

0.018

0.072

5.0

< 0.0001

Gut symbionts of plataspid stinkbugs

Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi

Vibrio cholerae

0.111

0.011

0.100

10.1

< 0.0001

Buchnera aphidicola of aphids

Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi

Vibrio cholerae

0.177

0.0

0.177

N.D.h

< 0.0001


aAcanthosomatid symbionts from E. nubilus (AB379694), E. putoni (AB379695), S. esakii (AB379696). Plataspid symbionts from Megacopta punctatissima (AB231904) and Megacopta cribraria (AB264337). Aphid symbionts from Acyrthosiphon pisum (NC_002528), Schizaphis graminum (NC_004061), Baizongia pistaciae (NC_004545) and Cinara cedri (NC_008513). E. coli (X07850) and Salmonella typhi (U01039).

bClosely related endosymbionts from Wigglesworthia glossinidia from tsetse Glossina brevipalpis (AF321516), Blochmannia floridanus from ant Camponotus floridanus (BX248583), Baumannia cicadellinicola from sharpshooter Homalodisca coagulata (CP000238). Vibrio cholerae (AE013602).

cEstimated mean distance between lineage 1 and the last common ancestor of lineages 1 and 2.

dEstimated mean distance between lineage 2 and the last common ancestor of lineages 1 and 2.

eK1–K2.

fK1/K2.

gP value based on the null distribution of distance values generated by 10,000 bootstrap resamplings of the aligned nucleotide sites.

hDivided by 0.

Kikuchi et al. BMC Biology 2009 7:2   doi:10.1186/1741-7007-7-2

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